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      Role of diaphragmatic rapid shallow breathing index in predicting weaning outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD

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          Abstract

          Background

          The diaphragmatic rapid shallow breathing index (D-RSBI), which is the ratio between respiratory rate (RR) and the ultrasonographic evaluation of diaphragmatic displacement (DD), is a new and promising tool to predict weaning outcome. Its accuracy in predicting weaning failure, in ready-to-wean acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) patients, needs to be evaluated.

          Patients and methods

          A prospective observational study was carried out on ready-to-wean AECOPD patients. During a T-tube spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) evaluation of the right hemidiaphragm displacement (ie, DD), M-mode ultrasonography to calculate the D-RSBI, as well as the RSBI (RR/tidal volume [VT]) were carried out simultaneously. Outcome of the weaning trial was recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of D-RSBI and RSBI.

          Results

          A total of 50 AECOPD patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h who were ready to perform a SBT were included. Of these, 37 (74%) were successfully liberated from mechanical ventilation. Among the 13 patients who failed the weaning trial, 8 (62%) failed the SBT and reconnected to the ventilator, 2 (15%) were reintubated within 48 h of extubation and 3 (23%) required NIV support within 48 h of extubation. The areas under the ROC curves for D-RSBI and RSBI were 0.97 ( p<0.001) and 0.67 ( p<0.06), respectively.

          Conclusion

          D-RSBI (RR/DD) is superior to the traditional RSBI (RR/VT) in predicting weaning outcome in AECOPD patients.

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          Most cited references 30

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          A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study.

          To develop and validate a new Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the SAPS II, from a large sample of surgical and medical patients, and to provide a method to convert the score to a probability of hospital mortality. The SAPS II and the probability of hospital mortality were developed and validated using data from consecutive admissions to 137 adult medical and/or surgical intensive care units in 12 countries. The 13,152 patients were randomly divided into developmental (65%) and validation (35%) samples. Patients younger than 18 years, burn patients, coronary care patients, and cardiac surgery patients were excluded. Vital status at hospital discharge. The SAPS II includes only 17 variables: 12 physiology variables, age, type of admission (scheduled surgical, unscheduled surgical, or medical), and three underlying disease variables (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, metastatic cancer, and hematologic malignancy). Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that the model performed well in the developmental sample and validated well in an independent sample of patients (P = .883 and P = .104 in the developmental and validation samples, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 in the developmental sample and 0.86 in the validation sample. The SAPS II, based on a large international sample of patients, provides an estimate of the risk of death without having to specify a primary diagnosis. This is a starting point for future evaluation of the efficiency of intensive care units.
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            Rapidly progressive diaphragmatic weakness and injury during mechanical ventilation in humans.

            Diaphragmatic function is a major determinant of the ability to successfully wean patients from mechanical ventilation (MV). Paradoxically, MV itself results in a rapid loss of diaphragmatic strength in animals. However, very little is known about the time course or mechanistic basis for such a phenomenon in humans. To determine in a prospective fashion the time course for development of diaphragmatic weakness during MV; and the relationship between MV duration and diaphragmatic injury or atrophy, and the status of candidate cellular pathways implicated in these phenomena. Airway occlusion pressure (TwPtr) generated by the diaphragm during phrenic nerve stimulation was measured in short-term (0.5 h; n = 6) and long-term (>5 d; n = 6) MV groups. Diaphragmatic biopsies obtained during thoracic surgery (MV for 2-3 h; n = 10) and from brain-dead organ donors (MV for 24-249 h; n = 15) were analyzed for ultrastructural injury, atrophy, and expression of proteolysis-related proteins (ubiquitin, nuclear factor-κB, and calpains). TwPtr decreased progressively during MV, with a mean reduction of 32 ± 6% after 6 days. Longer periods of MV were associated with significantly greater ultrastructural fiber injury (26.2 ± 4.8 vs. 4.7 ± 0.6% area), decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers (1,904 ± 220 vs. 3,100 ± 329 μm²), an increase of ubiquitinated proteins (+19%), higher expression of p65 nuclear factor-κB (+77%), and greater levels of the calcium-activated proteases calpain-1, -2, and -3 (+104%, +432%, and +266%, respectively) in the diaphragm. Diaphragmatic weakness, injury, and atrophy occur rapidly in critically ill patients during MV, and are significantly correlated with the duration of ventilator support.
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              Diaphragmatic motion studied by m-mode ultrasonography: methods, reproducibility, and normal values.

              Although diaphragmatic motion is readily studied by ultrasonography, the procedure remains poorly codified. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the reference values for diaphragmatic motion as recorded by M-mode ultrasonography. Two hundred ten healthy adult subjects (150 men, 60 women) were investigated. Both sides of the posterior diaphragm were identified, and M-mode was used to display the movement of the anatomical structures. Examinations were performed during quiet breathing, voluntary sniffing, and deep breathing. Diaphragmatic excursions were measured from the M-mode sonographic images. In addition, the reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer) was assessed. Right and left diaphragmatic motions were successfully assessed during quiet breathing in all subjects. During voluntary sniffing, the measurement was always possible on the right side, and in 208 of 210 volunteers, on the left side. During deep breathing, an obscuration of the diaphragm by the descending lung was noted in subjects with marked diaphragmatic excursion. Consequently, right diaphragmatic excursion could be measured in 195 of 210 subjects, and left diaphragmatic excursion in only 45 subjects. Finally, normal values of both diaphragmatic excursions were determined. Since the excursions were larger in men than in women, the gender should be taken into account. The lower limit values were close to 0.9 cm for women and 1 cm for men during quiet breathing, 1.6 cm for women and 1.8 cm for men during voluntary sniffing, and 3.7 cm for women and 4.7 cm for men during deep breathing. We demonstrated that M-mode ultrasonography is a reproducible method for assessing hemidiaphragmatic movement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                21 May 2018
                : 13
                : 1655-1661
                Affiliations
                Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ahmad Abbas, Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Port Said Street, Mit-Ghamr, 35611, Egypt, Email amabbaas@ 123456zu.edu.eg
                Article
                copd-13-1655
                10.2147/COPD.S161691
                5967374
                29849456
                © 2018 Abbas et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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