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      A Review of the Immunological Mechanisms Following Mucosal Vaccination of Finfish

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          Abstract

          Mucosal organs are principle portals of entry for microbial invasion and as such developing protective vaccines against these pathogens can serve as a first line of defense against infections. In general, all mucosal organs in finfish are covered by a layer of mucus whose main function is not only to prevent pathogen attachment by being continuously secreted and sloughing-off but it serves as a vehicle for antimicrobial compounds, complement, and immunoglobulins that degrade, opsonize, and neutralize invading pathogens on mucosal surfaces. In addition, all mucosal organs in finfish possess antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that activate cells of the adaptive immune system to generate long-lasting protective immune responses. The functional activities of APCs are orchestrated by a vast array of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines found in all mucosal organs. The adaptive immune system in mucosal organs is made of humoral immune responses that are able to neutralize invading pathogens as well as cellular-mediated immune responses whose kinetics are comparable to those induced by parenteral vaccines. In general, finfish mucosal immune system has the capacity to serve as the first-line defense mechanism against microbial invasion as well as being responsive to vaccination.

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          Most cited references 134

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          Mucosal vaccines: the promise and the challenge.

          Most infectious agents enter the body at mucosal surfaces and therefore mucosal immune responses function as a first line of defence. Protective mucosal immune responses are most effectively induced by mucosal immunization through oral, nasal, rectal or vaginal routes, but the vast majority of vaccines in use today are administered by injection. As discussed in this Review, current research is providing new insights into the function of mucosal tissues and the interplay of innate and adaptive immune responses that results in immune protection at mucosal surfaces. These advances promise to accelerate the development and testing of new mucosal vaccines against many human diseases including HIV/AIDS.
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            IgT, a primitive immunoglobulin class specialized in mucosal immunity.

            Teleost fish are the most primitive bony vertebrates that contain immunoglobulins. In contrast to mammals and birds, these species are devoid of immunoglobulin A (IgA) or a functional equivalent. This observation suggests that specialization of immunoglobulin isotypes into mucosal and systemic responses took place during tetrapod evolution. Challenging that paradigm, here we show that IgT, an immunoglobulin isotype of unknown function, acts like a mucosal antibody. We detected responses of rainbow trout IgT to an intestinal parasite only in the gut, whereas IgM responses were confined to the serum. IgT coated most intestinal bacteria. As IgT and IgA are phylogenetically distant immunoglobulins, their specialization into mucosal responses probably occurred independently by a process of convergent evolution.
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              B lymphocytes from early vertebrates have potent phagocytic and microbicidal abilities.

              The present paradigm dictates that phagocytosis is accomplished mainly by 'professional' phagocytes (such as macrophages and monocytes), whereas B cells lack phagocytic capabilities. Here we demonstrate that B cells from teleost fish have potent in vitro and in vivo phagocytic activities. Particle uptake by B cells induced activation of 'downstream' degradative pathways, leading to 'phagolysosome' formation and intracellular killing of ingested microbes. Those results indicate a previously unknown function for B cells in the innate immunity of these primitive animals. A considerable proportion of Xenopus laevis B cells were also phagocytic. Our findings support the idea that B cells evolved from an ancestral phagocytic cell type and provide an evolutionary framework for understanding the close relationship between mammalian B lymphocytes and macrophages.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences , Oslo, Norway
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jorge Galindo-Villegas, Murcia University, Spain

                Reviewed by: Ingunn Sommerset, MSD Animal Health, Norway; Esteban Soto, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, USA

                *Correspondence: Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu, Section of Aquatic Medicine and Nutrition, Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ullevålsveien 72, P.O Box 8146, Oslo NO-0033, Norway, hetroney.mweemba.munangandu@ 123456nmbu.no

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Immunotherapies and Vaccines, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Contributors
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/77708
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/238750
                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/198285
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                24 August 2015
                2015
                : 6
                4547047 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00427
                Copyright © 2015 Munang’andu, Mutoloki and Evensen.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 135, Pages: 11, Words: 10140
                Funding
                Funded by: TargetFish
                Award ID: EU Grant 311993
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology

                vaccine, skin, oral, mucosal, igt, igm, gut, gill

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