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      Inflammation-mediated SOD-2 upregulation contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration of tumor cells in aflatoxin G1-induced lung adenocarcinoma

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          Abstract

          Tumor-associated inflammation plays a critical role in facilitating tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Our previous study showed Aflatoxin G 1 (AFG 1) could induce lung adenocarcinoma in mice. Chronic lung inflammation associated with superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 upregulation was found in the lung carcinogenesis. However, it is unclear whether tumor-associated inflammation mediates SOD-2 to contribute to cell invasion in AFG1-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we found increased SOD-2 expression associated with vimentin, α-SMA, Twist1, and MMP upregulation in AFG 1-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Tumor-associated inflammatory microenvironment was also elicited, which may be related to SOD-2 upregulation and EMT in cancer cells. To mimic an AFG1-induced tumor-associated inflammatory microenvironment in vitro, we treated A549 cells and human macrophage THP-1 (MΦ-THP-1) cells with AFG 1, TNF-α and/or IL-6 respectively. We found AFG 1 did not promote SOD-2 expression and EMT in cancer cells, but enhanced TNF-α and SOD-2 expression in MΦ-THP-1 cells. Furthermore, TNF-α could upregulate SOD-2 expression in A549 cells through NF-κB pathway. Blocking of SOD-2 by siRNA partly inhibited TNF-α-mediated E-cadherin and vimentin alteration, and reversed EMT and cell migration in A549 cells. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated inflammation mediates SOD-2 upregulation through NF-κB pathway, which may contribute to EMT and cell migration in AFG 1-induced lung adenocarcinoma.Introduction.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Twist, a master regulator of morphogenesis, plays an essential role in tumor metastasis.

          Metastasis is a multistep process during which cancer cells disseminate from the site of primary tumors and establish secondary tumors in distant organs. In a search for key regulators of metastasis in a murine breast tumor model, we have found that the transcription factor Twist, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, plays an essential role in metastasis. Suppression of Twist expression in highly metastatic mammary carcinoma cells specifically inhibits their ability to metastasize from the mammary gland to the lung. Ectopic expression of Twist results in loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, activation of mesenchymal markers, and induction of cell motility, suggesting that Twist contributes to metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In human breast cancers, high level of Twist expression is correlated with invasive lobular carcinoma, a highly infiltrating tumor type associated with loss of E-cadherin expression. These results establish a mechanistic link between Twist, EMT, and tumor metastasis.
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            Reactive oxygen species in cancer.

            Elevated rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been detected in almost all cancers, where they promote many aspects of tumour development and progression. However, tumour cells also express increased levels of antioxidant proteins to detoxify from ROS, suggesting that a delicate balance of intracellular ROS levels is required for cancer cell function. Further, the radical generated, the location of its generation, as well as the local concentration is important for the cellular functions of ROS in cancer. A challenge for novel therapeutic strategies will be the fine tuning of intracellular ROS signalling to effectively deprive cells from ROS-induced tumour promoting events, towards tipping the balance to ROS-induced apoptotic signalling. Alternatively, therapeutic antioxidants may prevent early events in tumour development, where ROS are important. However, to effectively target cancer cells specific ROS-sensing signalling pathways that mediate the diverse stress-regulated cellular functions need to be identified. This review discusses the generation of ROS within tumour cells, their detoxification, their cellular effects, as well as the major signalling cascades they utilize, but also provides an outlook on their modulation in therapeutics.
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              SIRT3 opposes reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism through HIF1α destabilization.

              Tumor cells exhibit aberrant metabolism characterized by high glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. This metabolic reprogramming, known as the Warburg effect, provides tumor cells with the substrates required for biomass generation. Here, we show that the mitochondrial NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT3 is a crucial regulator of the Warburg effect. Mechanistically, SIRT3 mediates metabolic reprogramming by destabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α), a transcription factor that controls glycolytic gene expression. SIRT3 loss increases reactive oxygen species production, leading to HIF1α stabilization. SIRT3 expression is reduced in human breast cancers, and its loss correlates with the upregulation of HIF1α target genes. Finally, we find that SIRT3 overexpression represses glycolysis and proliferation in breast cancer cells, providing a metabolic mechanism for tumor suppression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhangxianghong2008@163.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                11 August 2017
                11 August 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.256883.2, , Department of Pathology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, ; Shijiazhuang, China
                [2 ]GRID grid.256883.2, , Lab of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, ; Shijiazhuang, China
                [3 ]GRID grid.256883.2, , Department of Dermatology,The Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, ; Shijiazhuang, China
                [4 ]GRID grid.256883.2, , Department of Pharmacology, Hebei Medical University, ; Shijiazhuang, China
                Article
                8537
                10.1038/s41598-017-08537-2
                5554181
                28801561
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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