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      Menopause and the risk of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged Chinese women

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          Abstract

          Objective: This study explored the relationship between menopause and metabolic syndrome (MetS), stroke, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.

          Study design: This cross-sectional study surveyed 440 women in Yuci, China in 2012.

          Main outcome measures: MetS, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, stroke, and behavioral and demographic variables.

          Results: The prevalence of MetS in this study was 40.28% to 49.66% ( p=0.065) among pre- and post-menopausal women, respectively, after adjusting for age.

          Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes, stroke, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia was higher among post- than pre-menopausal women. Health screenings for women in China should consider the increased risk for metabolic disorders during the postmenopausal stage of life.

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          Most cited references 54

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          The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause.

           Anitra Carr (2003)
          Women with the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia) are known to be at especially high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases with menopause and may partially explain the apparent acceleration in CVD after menopause. The transition from pre- to postmenopause is associated with the emergence of many features of the metabolic syndrome, including 1) increased central (intraabdominal) body fat; 2) a shift toward a more atherogenic lipid profile, with increased low density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels, reduced high density lipoprotein, and small, dense low density lipoprotein particles; 3) and increased glucose and insulin levels. The emergence of these risk factors may be a direct result of ovarian failure or, alternatively, an indirect result of the metabolic consequences of central fat redistribution with estrogen deficiency. It is unclear whether the transition to menopause increases CVD risk in all women or only those who develop features of the metabolic syndrome. This article will review the features of the metabolic syndrome that emerge with estrogen deficiency. A better understanding of these metabolic changes with menopause will aid in the recognition and treatment of women at risk for future CVD, leading to appropriate interventions.
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            Menopause and the metabolic syndrome: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

            Cross-sectional studies suggest that prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases from premenopause to postmenopause in women, independent of age. Little is known about why. We hypothesized that the incidence of the MetS increases with progression through menopause and that this increase is explained by the progressive androgenicity of the hormonal milieu. This longitudinal, 9-year study of 949 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation investigates the natural history of the menopausal transition. Participants of 5 ethnicities at 7 geographic sites were recruited when they were premenopausal or early perimenopausal and were eligible for this study if they (1) reached menopause during the study; (2) had never taken hormone therapy, and (3) did not have diabetes mellitus or the MetS at baseline. The primary outcome was the presence of MetS using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Secondary outcomes were the components of the MetS. By the final menstrual period, 13.7% of the women had new-onset MetS. Longitudinal analyses, centered at the final menstrual period, were adjusted for age at menopause, ethnicity, study site, marital status, education, body mass index, smoking, and aging. Odds of developing the MetS per year in perimenopause were 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.56); after menopause, 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.30). These odds were significantly different (P < .001). An increase in bioavailable testosterone or a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin levels increased the odds. As testosterone progressively dominates the hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition, the prevalence of MetS increases, independent of aging and other important covariates. This may be a pathway by which cardiovascular disease increases during menopause.
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              EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES: The Third Epidemiologic Transition

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FMCH
                Family Medicine and Community Health
                FMCH
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2009-8774
                2305-6983
                March 2015
                April 2015
                : 3
                : 1
                : 15-22
                Affiliations
                1Pharmacy Practice, Master of Public Health Program, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108
                2Master of Public Health Program, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND
                3Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
                4Medical Department, Shanxi Evergreen Service, Taiyuan, China
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Mark A Strand, Pharmacy Practice, Master of Public Health Program, North Dakota State University, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108, E-mail: Mark.Strand@ 123456ndsu.edu Tel.: +701-231-7497
                Article
                fmch20150106
                10.15212/FMCH.2015.0106
                Copyright © 2015 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Product
                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                Categories
                Section One: The Chronic Disease Challenge for General Practitioners

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