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      The IκB Kinase Complex (IKK) Contains Two Kinase Subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, Necessary for IκB Phosphorylation and NF-κB Activation

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      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Function and activation of NF-kappa B in the immune system.

          NF-kappa B is a ubiquitous transcription factor. Nevertheless, its properties seem to be most extensively exploited in cells of the immune system. Among these properties are NF-kappa B's rapid posttranslational activation in response to many pathogenic signals, its direct participation in cytoplasmic/nuclear signaling, and its potency to activate transcription of a great variety of genes encoding immunologically relevant proteins. In vertebrates, five distinct DNA binding subunits are currently known which might extensively heterodimerize, thereby forming complexes with distinct transcriptional activity, DNA sequence specificity, and cell type- and cell stage-specific distribution. The activity of DNA binding NF-kappa B dimers is tightly controlled by accessory proteins called I kappa B subunits of which there are also five different species currently known in vertebrates. I kappa B proteins inhibit DNA binding and prevent nuclear uptake of NF-kappa B complexes. An exception is the Bcl-3 protein which in addition can function as a transcription activating subunit in th nucleus. Other I kappa B proteins are rather involved in terminating NF-kappa B's activity in the nucleus. The intracellular events that lead to the inactivation of I kappa B, i.e. the activation of NF-kappa B, are complex. They involve phosphorylation and proteolytic reactions and seem to be controlled by the cells' redox status. Interference with the activation or activity of NF-kappa B may be beneficial in suppressing toxic/septic shock, graft-vs-host reactions, acute inflammatory reactions, acute phase response, and radiation damage. The inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by antioxidants and specific protease inhibitors may provide a pharmacological basis for interfering with these acute processes.
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            An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death.

            Studies on mice deficient in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunits have shown that this transcription factor is important for lymphocyte responses to antigens and cytokine-inducible gene expression. In particular, the RelA (p65) subunit is required for induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent genes. Treatment of RelA-deficient (RelA-/-) mouse fibroblasts and macrophages with TNF-alpha resulted in a significant reduction in viability, whereas RelA+/+ cells were unaffected. Cytotoxicity to both cell types was mediated by TNF receptor 1. Reintroduction of RelA into RelA-/- fibroblasts resulted in enhanced survival, demonstrating that the presence of RelA is required for protection from TNF-alpha. These results have implications for the treatment of inflammatory and proliferative diseases.
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              Principles of CDK regulation.

              As key regulators of the cell cycle, the cyclin-dependent kinases must be tightly regulated by extra- and intracellular signals. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinases is controlled by four highly conserved biochemical mechanisms, forming a web of regulatory pathways unmatched in its elegance and intricacy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                October 1997
                October 1997
                : 91
                : 2
                : 243-252
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80406-7
                © 1997

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