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      Single-Step Enantioselective Synthesis of Mechanically Planar Chiral [2]Rotaxanes Using a Chiral Leaving Group Strategy


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          We report a one-step enantioselective synthesis of mechanically planar chiral [2]rotaxanes. Previous studies of such molecules have generally involved the separation of enantiomers from racemic mixtures or the preparation and separation of diastereomeric intermediates followed by post-assembly modification to remove other sources of chirality. Here, we demonstrate a simple asymmetric metal-free active template rotaxane synthesis using a primary amine, an activated ester with a chiral leaving group, and an achiral crown ether lacking rotational symmetry. Mechanically planar chiral rotaxanes are obtained directly in up to 50% enantiomeric excess. The rotaxanes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, chiral HPLC, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and circular dichroism. Either rotaxane enantiomer could be prepared selectively by incorporating pseudoenantiomeric cinchona alkaloids into the chiral leaving group.

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          Optimization of parameters for semiempirical methods V: Modification of NDDO approximations and application to 70 elements

          Several modifications that have been made to the NDDO core-core interaction term and to the method of parameter optimization are described. These changes have resulted in a more complete parameter optimization, called PM6, which has, in turn, allowed 70 elements to be parameterized. The average unsigned error (AUE) between calculated and reference heats of formation for 4,492 species was 8.0 kcal mol−1. For the subset of 1,373 compounds involving only the elements H, C, N, O, F, P, S, Cl, and Br, the PM6 AUE was 4.4 kcal mol−1. The equivalent AUE for other methods were: RM1: 5.0, B3LYP 6–31G*: 5.2, PM5: 5.7, PM3: 6.3, HF 6–31G*: 7.4, and AM1: 10.0 kcal mol−1. Several long-standing faults in AM1 and PM3 have been corrected and significant improvements have been made in the prediction of geometries. Figure Calculated structure of the complex ion [Ta6Cl12]2+ (footnote): Reference value in parenthesis Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00894-007-0233-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            An Efficient Approach to Mechanically Planar Chiral Rotaxanes

            We describe the first method for production of mechanically planar chiral rotaxanes in excellent enantiopurity without the use of chiral separation techniques and, for the first time, unambiguously assign the absolute stereochemistry of the products. This proof-of-concept study, which employs a chiral pool sugar as the source of asymmetry and a high-yielding active template reaction for mechanical bond formation, finally opens the door to detailed investigation of these challenging targets.
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              Is Open Access

              Synthesis of a Mechanically Planar Chiral Rotaxane Ligand for Enantioselective Catalysis

              Summary Rotaxanes are interlocked molecules in which a molecular ring is trapped on a dumbbell-shaped axle because of its inability to escape over the bulky end groups, resulting in a so-called mechanical bond. Interlocked molecules have mainly been studied as components of molecular machines, but the crowded, flexible environment created by threading one molecule through another has also been explored in catalysis and sensing. However, so far, the applications of one of the most intriguing properties of interlocked molecules, their ability to display stereogenic units that do not rely on the stereochemistry of their covalent subunits, termed “mechanical chirality,” have yet to be properly explored, and prototypical demonstration of the applications of mechanically chiral rotaxanes remain scarce. Here, we describe a mechanically planar chiral rotaxane-based Au complex that mediates a cyclopropanation reaction with stereoselectivities that are comparable with the best conventional covalent catalyst reported for this reaction.

                Author and article information

                J Am Chem Soc
                J. Am. Chem. Soc
                Journal of the American Chemical Society
                American Chemical Society
                01 May 2020
                27 May 2020
                : 142
                : 21
                : 9803-9808
                []Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester , Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom
                []School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University , 200062 Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

                : 29 March 2020
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