Qusai Aljarrah 1 , Mohammed Allouh 2 , Amer H Hallak 3 , Shamikh E Alghezawi 3 , Mamoon Al-Omari 4 , Mwaffaq Elheis 4 , Mooath Al-Jarrah 4 , Sohail Bakkar 5 , Abdelwahab J Aleshawi 6 , Hussam Al-Jarrah 1 , Khalid S Ibrahim 7 , Jan Mohammed Al Shishani 8 , Aws Almukhtar 9
09 October 2020
Central venous lesions (CVLs) can adversely affect hemodialysis access maturation and maintenance, which in turn worsen patient morbidity and access circuit patency. In this study, we assessed several clinical variables, patient characteristics, and clinical consequences of symptomatic central vein stenosis and obstruction in patients who underwent renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis.
The medical records of all hemodialysis patients with clinically symptomatic CVLs who underwent digital subtraction angiography treatment at King Abdullah University Hospital between January 2017 and December 2019 were retrieved. Patient characteristics and the clinical and anatomical features of CVLs were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson’s chi-square tests of association were used to identify and assess relationships between patient characteristics and CVLs.
The study cohort comprised 66 patients with end-stage renal disease who developed symptomatic central vein stenosis. Of the 66 patients, 56.1% were men, and their mean age was approximately 52 years. Most (62.1%) of the patients were determined to have a history of central catheter insertion into the jugular vein. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (78.8%, p<0.001), followed by type 2 diabetes mellitus (47.0 %, p<0.01). The incidence of stenosis was found to be significantly higher in the brachiocephalic vein than in other central veins (43.9%, p<0.001). A repeated central catheter insertion in a patient was predictive of central venous occlusion ( p<0.05). Stenotic lesions were found to be associated with a significantly higher success rate than occlusive lesions (91.2%, p<0.01).
Multiple central venous catheters (CVCs) are found to be associated with occlusive CVLs and unfavorable recanalization outcomes. Multiple CVC should be avoided by creating a permanent vascular access in a timely fashion for patients with chronic kidney disease and by avoiding the ipsilateral insertion of CVC and AVF.