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      The safety and efficacy of front-firing green-light laser endoscopic en bloc photoselective vapo-enucleation of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Laser therapy provides an alternative option for treating non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, the clinical evidence for potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser en bloc resection is still limited. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the 120-W front-firing KTP laser for the treatment of NMIBC.

          Methods

          A total of 64 patients with NMIBC treated with either a 120-W front-firing KTP-photoselective vapo-enucleation of the bladder tumor (PVEBT, n=34) or transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT, n=30) were included. En bloc resection was applied to the patients in PVEBT group.

          Results

          There was no significant difference in rinsing time ( P=0.292), indwelling catheter ( P=0.080), pathologic type, and T stage ( P=0.870) between the two groups. Compared with the TURBT group, patients treated with PVEBT had a shorter hospitalization stay ( P=0.044), a shorter operation time ( P=0.008), and a lower muscle miss rate ( P=0.044). PVEBT is superior to TURBT in terms of the rate of 1-year recurrence ( P=0.015) and tumor grade progression rate ( P=0.019).

          Conclusion

          The 120-W front-firing KTP laser en bloc enucleation technique is a safe and feasible procedure for treating patients with NMIBC. Further external validation in larger cohorts with a long follow-up period is warranted.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Detrusor muscle in the first, apparently complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour specimen is a surrogate marker of resection quality, predicts risk of early recurrence, and is dependent on operator experience.

          An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer analysis of multicentre trials found significant interinstitutional variability in recurrence rates at first follow-up cystoscopy (RR-FFC) and attributed this to variable transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) quality. To determine whether resection of detrusor muscle (DM) in the first, apparently complete TURBT is a surrogate marker of quality and whether the presence of DM is dependent on a surgeon's experience. Over a 2-yr period, patients with new bladder tumours that were judged to have been completely resected were recruited from our prospectively maintained bladder tumour database. Strict exclusion criteria were applied. Prospectively recorded tumour size, tumour multiplicity, surgeon category, DM status, grade and stage of tumour, and findings at first follow-up cystoscopy (at 3 mo) and at early re-TURBT were evaluated. Surgeons were stratified into seniors (consultants and year 5 or year 6 trainees) and juniors (trainees lower than year 5). Early recurrence (for calculating RR-FFC) was defined as pathologically confirmed tumour on early re-TURBT or recurrence at the first follow-up cystoscopy. Logistic regression multivariate analyses were carried out to determine associations between variables. In a total of 356 patients, DM was present in 241 patients (67.7%). Multivariate analyses revealed that large tumours, high-grade tumours, and surgery by senior surgeons was independently associated with the presence of DM in the resected specimens. The RR-FFCs when DM was absent and present were 44.4% and 21.7%, respectively (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.4; p=0.0002). The absence of DM and resection by less experienced surgeons independently predicted a higher RR-FFC. This association was also seen in small and low-grade tumours. The number of patients in this study appears modest, and further validation may be required. DM absence or presence in the first, apparently complete TURBT specimen appears to be a surrogate marker of resection quality by independently predicting the RR-FFC, which is also dependent on surgeon experience. Copyright © 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

             Amanda Kuntz (2006)
            Evaluate the current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The results of a MEDLINE search for randomised trials and case series of the last 5 yr and published review articles were analysed for the safety and efficacy of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP), and holmium (Ho):YAG laser prostatectomy. The analysis includes 12 reports on randomised clinical trials, 2 comparative studies, 10 review articles, and a total of >5000 patients. Laser treatment of BPH has evolved from coagulation to enucleation. Blood loss is significantly reduced compared with transurethral resection and open prostatectomy. Visual laser ablation of the prostate and interstitial laser coagulation cause coagulative necrosis with secondary ablation. Long postoperative catheterisation, unpredictable outcomes, and high reoperation rates have restricted the use of these techniques. Ablative/vaporising techniques have become popular again with the marketing of new high-powered 80-W KTP and 100-W Ho lasers. Vaporisation immediately removes obstructing tissue. Short-term results are promising, but large series, long-term results, and randomised trials are lacking. Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) allows whole lobes of the prostate to be removed, mimicking the action of the index finger in open prostatectomy. Prostates of all sizes can be operated on. It is at least as safe and effective as transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy, with significantly lower morbidity. It is the only laser procedure that provides a specimen for histologic evaluation. HoLEP appears to be a size-independent new "gold standard" in the surgical treatment of BPH.
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              EAU guidelines on laser technologies.

              The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Office has set up a guideline working panel to analyse the scientific evidence published in the world literature on lasers in urologic practice. Review the physical background and physiologic and technical aspects of the use of lasers in urology, as well as current clinical results from these new and evolving technologies, together with recommendations for the application of lasers in urology. The primary objective of this structured presentation of the current evidence base in this area is to assist clinicians in making informed choices regarding the use of lasers in their practice. Structured literature searches using an expert consultant were designed for each section of this document. Searches were carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Medline and Embase on the Dialog/DataStar platform. The controlled terminology of the respective databases was used, and both Medical Subject Headings and EMTREE were analysed for relevant entry terms. One Cochrane review was identified. Depending on the date of publication, the evidence for different laser treatments is heterogeneous. The available evidence allows treatments to be classified as safe alternatives for the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction in different clinical scenarios, such as refractory urinary retention, anticoagulation, and antiplatelet medication. Laser treatment for bladder cancer should only be used in a clinical trial setting or for patients who are not suitable for conventional treatment due to comorbidities or other complications. For the treatment of urinary stones and retrograde endoureterotomy, lasers provide a standard tool to augment the endourologic procedure. In benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), laser vaporisation, resection, or enucleation are alternative treatment options. The standard treatment for BPO remains transurethral resection of the prostate for small to moderate size prostates and open prostatectomy for large prostates. Laser energy is an optimal treatment method for disintegrating urinary stones. The use of lasers to treat bladder tumours and in laparoscopy remains investigational. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                11 August 2017
                : 13
                : 983-988
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Southern Medical University affiliated Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guosheng Yang, Department of Urology, Southern Medical University Affiliated Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Southern Medical University, No 446 Xingang Middle Road, Guangzhou 510317, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 20 8916 8668, Email 2008yangguosheng@ 123456sina.com
                Article
                tcrm-13-983
                10.2147/TCRM.S141900
                5565370
                © 2017 Cheng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                recurrence, laser surgery, en bloc, transurethral resection, bladder cancer

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