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Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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      Abstract

      Objectives:

      This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

      Methods:

      Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests.

      Results:

      (1) Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2) The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3) No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs), and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4) No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5) Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed.

      Conclusion:

      The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

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      Most cited references 29

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      Antiarthritic effect of bee venom: inhibition of inflammation mediator generation by suppression of NF-kappaB through interaction with the p50 subunit.

      To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the antiarthritic effects of bee venom (BV) and melittin (a major component of BV) in a murine macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7) and in synoviocytes obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We evaluated the antiarthritic effects of BV in a rat model of carrageenan-induced acute edema in the paw and in a rat model of chronic adjuvant-induced arthritis. The inhibitory effects of BV and melittin on inflammatory gene expression were measured by Western blotting, and the generation of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) and the intracellular calcium level were assayed. NF-kappaB DNA binding and transcriptional activity were determined by gel mobility shift assay or by luciferase assay. Direct binding of BV and melittin to the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB was determined with a surface plasmon resonance analyzer. BV (0.8 and 1.6 mug/kg) reduced the effects of carrageenan- and adjuvant-induced arthritis. This reducing effect was consistent with the inhibitory effects of BV (0.5, 1, and 5 mug/ml) and melittin (5 and 10 mug/ml) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mug/ml)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2, cytosolic phospholipase A(2), inducible NO synthase, generation of PGE(2) and NO, and the intracellular calcium level. BV and melittin prevented LPS-induced transcriptional and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB via the inhibition of IkappaB release and p50 translocation. BV (affinity [K(d)] = 4.6 x 10(-6)M) and melittin (K(d) = 1.2 x 10(-8)M) bound directly to p50. Target inactivation of NF-kappaB by directly binding to the p50 subunit is an important mechanism of the antiarthritic effects of BV.
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        Bee and wasp venoms.

         E Habermann (1972)
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          JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

          Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-κB activation and inflammatory reaction, we further investigated whether activation of MAP kinase may be also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of melittin and bee venom. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects of melittin and bee venom were investigated in cultured Raw 264.7 cells, THP-1 human monocytic cells and Synoviocytes. The activation of NF-κB was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined either by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay or by biochemical assay. Expression of IκB, p50, p65, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as phosphorylation of MAP kinase family was determined by Western blot. Results Melittin (0.5–5 μg/ml) and bee venom (5 and 10 μg/ml) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 μM)-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose dependent manner. However, JNK inhibitor, anthra [1,9-cd]pyrazole-6 (2H)-one (SP600215, 10–50 μM) dose dependently suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on NF-κB dependent luciferase and DNA binding activity via suppression of the inhibitory effect of melittin and bee venom on the LPS and SNP-induced translocation of p65 and p50 into nucleus as well as cytosolic release of IκB. Moreover, JNK inhibitor suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on iNOS and COX-2 expression, and on NO and PGE2 generation. Conclusion These data show that melittin and bee venom prevent LPS and SNP-induced NO and PGE2 production via JNK pathway dependent inactivation of NF-κB, and suggest that inactivation of JNK pathways may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis effects of melittin and bee venom.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, Sangji University College of Oriental Medicine, Wonju, Korea
            [2 ] Division of Animal Resources and Life Science, Sangji University, Wonju, Korea
            [3 ] Department of Internal Medicine, Sangji University College of Oriental Medicine, Wonju, Korea
            [4 ] Research Center of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute, Seoul, Korea
            Author notes
            * Corresponding Author Kwangho Lee. Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Sangji University College of Oriental Medicine, 283, Woosan-dong, Wonju, Kangwon 220-955, Korea. Tel: +82-33-741-9257 Fax: +82-33-732-2124 E-mail: redphilips@ 123456hanmail.net
            Journal
            J Pharmacopuncture
            J Pharmacopuncture
            J Pharmacopunct
            Journal of Pharmacopuncture
            KOREAN PHARMACOPUNCTURE INSTITUTE
            2093-6966
            2234-6856
            June 2014
            : 17
            : 2
            : 18-26
            4332000 10.3831/KPI.2014.17.012
            Copyright ©2014, KOREAN PHARMACOPUNCTURE INSTITUTE

            This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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