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      Association of Abnormal Serum Potassium Levels with Arrhythmias and Cardiovascular Mortality: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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          Most cited references 62

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          ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society.

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            Serum and dialysate potassium concentrations and survival in hemodialysis patients.

            Controlling serum potassium is an important goal in maintenance hemodialysis patients. We examined the achievement of potassium balance through hemodialysis treatments and the associated fluctuations in serum potassium. A 3-yr (July 2001 to June 2004) cohort of 81,013 maintenance hemodialysis patients from all DaVita dialysis clinics across the United States were studied. Nine quarterly-averaged serum potassium groups ( or = 6.3 mEq/L and seven increments in-between) and four dialysate potassium concentration groups were created in each of the 12 calendar quarters. The death risk associated with predialysis potassium level and dialysate potassium concentration was examined using unadjusted, case-mix adjusted, and malnutrition-inflammation-adjusted time-dependent survival models. Serum potassium correlated with nutritional markers. Serum potassium between 4.6 and 5.3 mEq/L was associated with the greatest survival, whereas potassium or = 5.6 mEq/L was associated with increased mortality. The death risk of serum potassium > or = 5.6 mEq/L remained consistent after adjustments. Higher dialysate potassium concentration was associated with increased mortality in hyperkalemic patients with predialysis serum potassium > or = 5.0 mEq/L. A predialysis serum potassium of 4.6 to 5.3 mEq/L is associated with the greatest survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Hyperkalemic patients who undergo maintenance hemodialysis against lower dialysate bath may have better survival. Limitations of observational studies including confounding by indication should be considered when interpreting these results.
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              Characteristics of sudden death in hemodialysis patients.

              Hemodialysis (HD) is an intermittent procedure during which large fluid and electrolyte shifts occur. We hypothesized that sudden death occurrences in HD patients are related to the timing of HD, and that they occur more frequently in the 12 h period starting with dialysis and in the 12 h period at the end of the dialysis-free weekend interval. In a retrospective study, 228 patient deaths were screened to determine if they met the criteria for sudden death. Information was obtained from clinic charts, dialysis center records, and interview of witnesses of the death event. There were 80 HD patients who met the criteria for sudden death. A bimodal distribution of death occurrences was present, with a 1.7-fold increased death risk occurring in the 12 h period starting with the dialysis procedure and a threefold increased risk of death in the 12 h before HD at the end of the weekend interval (P=0.011). Patients with sudden death had a high prevalence of congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease. Only 40% of patients experiencing sudden death were receiving beta-blockers, and the prior monthly serum potassium value was less than 4 mEq/l in 25%. Sudden death is temporally related to the HD procedure. Every other day HD could be beneficial in preventing sudden death. Careful attention to the usage of beta-blockers and to the maintenance of normal serum potassium values is indicated in HD patients at risk for sudden death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
                Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0920-3206
                1573-7241
                April 2018
                April 20 2018
                April 2018
                : 32
                : 2
                : 197-212
                Article
                10.1007/s10557-018-6783-0
                © 2018

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