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      Contribution of Individual Structural Components in Determining the Zero-Stress State in Small Arteries

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          Abstract

          Arterial-wall stress distributions are important determinants of arterial function and are determined by the mechanical properties of the vessel wall, the physiological loading conditions, and the zero stress state of the artery. In this study, the relationship between this zero-stress state, the contractile state of the vessel, and the extracellular matrix components was investigated. Rat saphenous arteries were excised, and cross-sectional slices were cut. Wall thickness, intimal circumference, medial to adventitial border circumference, and the outer adventitial circumference were measured. Each slice was cut once longitudinally to relieve the residual stresses, and after a period of 30 min, vessel dimensions were again measured, and the angle to which the arterial section opened, a measure of the residual stress present in the intact artery, was recorded in this new zero-stress state. Control ‘opening angle’ was 112 ± 10° (mean ± SD, n = 8) as compared to 138 ± 6° (n = 18) and 127 ± 6° (n = 11) for slices placed in 10<sup>–4</sup>  M adenosine at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran was also injected intravenously in 8 animals to measure the homeostatic lumen diameter and wall thickness using intravital microscopy. Comparison of homeostatic strains calculated from these in situ dimensions to residual strains indicated that a given opening angle produced a radially uniform circumferential strain only for a specific level of tone. These results suggest that smooth muscle tone can acutely modify residual strain, possibly through interconnections with matrix components. Furthermore, selective elimination of matrix components by post-treatment of zero-stress slices with elastase or collagenase in 6 animals each increased the opening angle by 53 and 70%, respectively, suggesting that the extracellular matrix structure may regulate arterial strains in the long term.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          JVR
          J Vasc Res
          10.1159/issn.1018-1172
          Journal of Vascular Research
          S. Karger AG
          1018-1172
          1423-0135
          1998
          February 1998
          06 February 1998
          : 35
          : 1
          : 8-17
          Affiliations
          Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., USA
          Article
          25560 J Vasc Res 1998;35:8–17
          10.1159/000025560
          9482691
          © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 19, Pages: 10
          Categories
          Research Paper

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