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      Differential Nitrogen Nutrition Modifies Polyamines and the Amino-Acid Profile of Sweet Pepper Under Salinity Stress


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          The horticultural industry demands high-quality resources to achieve excellence in yield and optimal revenues. Nitrogen is a pivotal nutrient to accomplish these goals for plant growth and product quality. However, competition for water in semi-arid regions can force the use of brackish waters, which can impair N uptake. The lower N uptake can be due to several reasons, such as an antagonism between ions, an absence of ATP, and/or alteration of N metabolism. The effect of supplying N as NO 3 alone or in combination with NH 4 + , coupled with low or high salinity (8 or 20 mM NaCl), has been studied in sweet pepper fruits ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Melchor). The application of NH 4 + at high salinity affected chromatic parameters (a , b , and C ), while chlorophyll a and b levels declined and β-carotene increased. The concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Cu were reduced in the fruits of plants irrigated with NH 4 + . The concentration of Na was only reduced when NH 4 + was supplied. Likewise, the concentration of total phenolics was also reduced at high salinity. However, total protein was unaffected. The amino acid profile was altered by the supply of NH 4 + , which reduced the concentrations of histidine and phenylalanine. Moreover, the concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine were increased by NH 4 + at high salinity, whereas that of cadaverine was reduced by NH 4 + at low salinity. The observed changes in fruit quality triggered by salinity, under the conditions of this study, should be borne in mind for this crop with regard to the envisaged palliative effect of the supply of N- NH 4 + .

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          Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds.

          The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
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            Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids in Tomato Fruit.

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              Polyamines: natural and engineered abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants.

              Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous biogenic amines that have been implicated in diverse cellular functions in widely distributed organisms. In plants, mutant and transgenic plants with altered activity pointed to their involvement with different abiotic and biotic stresses. Furthermore, microarray, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have elucidated key functions of different PAs in signaling networks in plants subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses, however the exact molecular mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, we argue that PAs should not be taken only as a protective molecule but rather like a double-faced molecule that likely serves as a major area for further research efforts. This review summarizes recent advances in plant polyamine research ranging from transgenic and mutant characterization to potential mechanisms of action during environmental stresses and diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                02 April 2019
                : 10
                : 301
                [1] 1Department of Crop Production and Agri-Tecnology, Murcia Institute of Agri-Food Research and Development , Murcia, Spain
                [2] 2Agricultural Research and Development Centre of Almería (IFAPA) , Almería, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ana Margarida Fortes, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Christine Becker, Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany; Oscar A. Ruiz, CONICET Institute of Biotechnological Research (IIB-INTECH), Argentina

                *Correspondence: Francisco M. del Amor, franciscom.delamor@ 123456carm.es

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Piñero, Porras, López-Marín, Sánchez-Guerrero, Medrano, Lorenzo and del Amor.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 29 October 2018
                : 25 February 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 9, Words: 0
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                nitrogen,salinity,capsicum annuum l.,nutrients,free amino acids,polyamines
                Plant science & Botany
                nitrogen, salinity, capsicum annuum l., nutrients, free amino acids, polyamines


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