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      Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

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          Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

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          Most cited references 133

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          Core/shell nanoparticles: classes, properties, synthesis mechanisms, characterization, and applications.

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            Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs): development, surface modification and applications in chemotherapy.

            At present, nanoparticles are used for various biomedical applications where they facilitate laboratory diagnostics and therapeutics. More specifically for drug delivery purposes, the use of nanoparticles is attracting increasing attention due to their unique capabilities and their negligible side effects not only in cancer therapy but also in the treatment of other ailments. Among all types of nanoparticles, biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with proper surface architecture and conjugated targeting ligands/proteins have attracted a great deal of attention for drug delivery applications. This review covers recent advances in the development of SPIONs together with their possibilities and limitations from fabrication to application in drug delivery. In addition, the state-of-the-art synthetic routes and surface modification of desired SPIONs for drug delivery purposes are described. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective.

              The regulation of engineered nanoparticles requires a widely agreed definition of such particles. Nanoparticles are routinely defined as particles with sizes between about 1 and 100 nm that show properties that are not found in bulk samples of the same material. Here we argue that evidence for novel size-dependent properties alone, rather than particle size, should be the primary criterion in any definition of nanoparticles when making decisions about their regulation for environmental, health and safety reasons. We review the size-dependent properties of a variety of inorganic nanoparticles and find that particles larger than about 30 nm do not in general show properties that would require regulatory scrutiny beyond that required for their bulk counterparts.

                Author and article information

                Nanotechnol Sci Appl
                Nanotechnol Sci Appl
                Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
                Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
                Dove Medical Press
                19 August 2016
                : 9
                : 49-67
                [1 ]Department of Biotechnology
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
                [3 ]Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Kongju, South Korea
                [4 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Attarad Ali, Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan, Email attarad.ali@ 123456kiu.edu.pk
                © 2016 Ali et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



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