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      Short telomere length is associated with arterial aging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


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          It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease and 49 control group participants. Glucose metabolism assessment tests, measuring intima–media complex thickness and determining the presence of atherosclerotic plaques, pulse wave velocity measurement, and telomere length measurement were administered to all participants. Vascular changes were more dramatic in patients with diabetes than in the control group, and the telomeres were shorter in patients with diabetes. Significant differences were found in the vascular wall condition among diabetes patients, and there were no substantial differences in the arterial structure between patients with ‘long’ telomeres; however, there were statistically significant differences in the vascular wall condition between patients with ‘short’ telomeres. Vascular ageing signs were more prominent in patients with diabetes. However, despite diabetes, vascular changes in patients with long telomeres were very modest and were similar to the vascular walls in healthy individuals. Thus, long lymphocyte telomeres may have a protective effect on the vascular wall and may prevent vascular wall deterioration caused by glucose metabolism disorders.

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          Telomere shortening in atherosclerosis.

          Eukaryotic chromosomes end with telomeres, which shorten with cellular ageing. We investigated whether atherosclerosis is associated with systemic evidence of accelerated cellular ageing. We compared mean length of terminal restriction fragments (TRF), a measure of average telomere size, in leucocyte DNA of ten patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) with that of 20 controls without CAD. Adjusting for age and sex, cases had mean TRF lengths of 303 (SD 90) base pairs shorter than those of controls (p=0.002)-ie, equivalent in size to individuals with no CAD who are 8.6 years older. Although this is a pilot study, the findings could be relevant to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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            Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition.

            Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiovascular disease and shortens human lifespan. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a rise in insulin resistance in concert with gain in body mass is associated with accelerated white blood cell telomere attrition. We measured white blood cell telomere dynamics and age-related changes in insulin resistance and body mass index in young adults of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Over 10.1 to 12.8 years, the relative changes in telomere length were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.531, P<0.001) and changes in the body mass index (r=-0.423, P<0.001). These findings provide the first tangible nexus of telomere biology with insulin resistance and adiposity in humans.
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              Telomere length as an indicator of biological aging: the gender effect and relation with pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity.

              Chronological age is the primary determinant of stiffness of central arteries. Increased stiffness is an independent indicator of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether telomere length, a possible index of biological aging, provides a better account than chronological age for variation in arterial stiffness, evaluated by measuring pulse pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. The study population included 193 French subjects (120 men, 73 women), with a mean age of 56+/-11 years, who were not on any antihypertensive medications. Telomere length was evaluated in white blood cells by measuring the mean length of the terminal restriction fragments. Age-adjusted telomere length was longer in women than in men (8.67+/-0.09 versus 8.37+/-0.07 kb; P=0.016). In both genders, telomere length was inversely correlated with age (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that in men, but not in women, telomere length significantly contributed to pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity variations. In conclusion, telomere length provides an additional account to chronological age of variations in both pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity among men, such that men with shorter telomere length are more likely to exhibit high pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity, which are indices of large artery stiffness. The longer telomere length in women suggests that for a given chronological age, biological aging of men is more advanced than that of women.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                24 June 2015
                1 September 2015
                : 4
                : 3
                : 136-143
                [1 ]National Research Center for Preventive Medicine , Building 10, Petroverigskiy Lane, Moscow, 101990, Russian Federation
                [2 ]Endocrinology Research Centre , Moscow, Russian Federation
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to E N Dudinskaya Email: katharina.gin@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2015 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 26 May 2015
                : 28 May 2015

                telomere length,vascular ageing,diabetes mellitus,insulin resistance,arterial stiffness


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