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      Identification of key microRNAs and their targets in exosomes of pancreatic cancer using bioinformatics analysis

      research-article

      , MD, PhD a , b , , MD c , , MD, PhD b , , MD, PhD b , , MD, PhD b ,

      Medicine

      Wolters Kluwer Health

      bioinformatics analysis, microRNAs, pancreatic cancer, serum exosomes, target genes

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          Abstract

          Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

          Abstract

          Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal tumors, due to late diagnosis and limited surgical strategies. It has been reported that serum exosomal microRNAs (S-Exo-miRNAs) play a pivotal role as signaling molecules and serve as noninvasive diagnosis methods for PC. The combination of S-Exo-miRNAs with the corresponding target also plays an important role in the tumor microenvironment.

          Here we investigated S-Exo-miRNAs involved in PC. The gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The analysis was carried out using GEO2R. The targets of differentially expressed serum exosomal miRNAs (DE-S-Exo-miRNAs) were predicted by 4 bioinformatic algorithms (miRanda, miRDB, miRWalk, and Targetscan). Further analysis with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed with Cytoscape software version 3.4.0. Subsequently, the interaction regulatory network of target genes was performed with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database ( http://www.string-db.org/) and visualized using Cytoscape software.

          We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE50632, which was based on an Agilent microarray GPL17660 platform containing 4 eligible samples. In total 467 DE-S-Exo-miRNAs were obtained, including 7 overexpressed miRNAs (1.50%), and 460 remaining underexpressed miRNAs (98.50%). The databases miRWalk, miRDB, miRanda, and TargetScan were used to predict their potential targets, which were subsequently submitted to Cytoscape software version 3.4.0 ( www.cytoscape.org). Next the functional and pathway enrichment analysis were used for the KEGG pathway and GO categories analysis. The enrichment analysis identified the genes involved in such processes as developmental and negative regulation of multicellular organismal processes, regulation of anatomical structure morphogenesis, regulation of cell death, apoptotic processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, transforming growth factor - beta (TGF -β) signaling pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway. Subsequently according to the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, the top 10 genes were obtained. The enrichment analyses of the genes involved in a significant module revealed that these genes were related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. After reviewing the literature, we identified the apoptosis genes, and their corresponding miRNAs that have a relationship with apoptosis of the tumor.

          This analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the roles of S-Exo-miRNAs and the related targets in the development of PC. Additionally, the present study provides promising candidate targets for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. However, these predictions require further experimental validation in future studies.

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          Cellular survival: a play in three Akts.

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            Endogenous RNAs modulate microRNA sorting to exosomes and transfer to acceptor cells.

            MicroRNA (miRNA) transfer via exosomes may mediate cell-to-cell communication. Interestingly, specific miRNAs are enriched in exosomes in a cell-type-dependent fashion. However, the mechanisms whereby miRNAs are sorted to exosomes and the significance of miRNA transfer to acceptor cells are unclear. We used macrophages and endothelial cells (ECs) as a model of heterotypic cell communication in order to investigate both processes. RNA profiling of macrophages and their exosomes shows that miRNA sorting to exosomes is modulated by cell-activation-dependent changes of miRNA target levels in the producer cells. Genetically perturbing the expression of individual miRNAs or their targeted transcripts promotes bidirectional miRNA relocation from the cell cytoplasm/P bodies (sites of miRNA activity) to multivesicular bodies (sites of exosome biogenesis) and controls miRNA sorting to exosomes. Furthermore, the use of Dicer-deficient cells and reporter lentiviral vectors (LVs) for miRNA activity shows that exosomal miRNAs are transferred from macrophages to ECs to detectably repress targeted sequences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Exosomes derived from miR-140-5p-overexpressing human synovial mesenchymal stem cells enhance cartilage tissue regeneration and prevent osteoarthritis of the knee in a rat model

              OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease throughout the world. Exosomes derived from miR-140-5p-overexpressing synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSC-140s) may be effective in treating OA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from SMSC-140 (SMSC-140-Exos) would enhance the proliferation and migration abilities of articular chondrocytes (ACs) without harming extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. METHODS: SMSCs were transfected with or without miR-140-5p. Exosomes derived from SMSCs or SMSC-140s (SMSC-Exos or SMSC-140-Exos) were isolated and identified. Proliferation, migration and ECM secretion were measured in vitro and compared between groups. The mechanism involving alternative Wnt signalling and activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) was investigated using lentivirus, oligonucleotides or chemical drugs. The preventative effect of exosomes in vivo was measured using Safranin-O and Fast green staining and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Wnt5a and Wnt5b carried by exosomes activated YAP via the alternative Wnt signalling pathway and enhanced proliferation and migration of chondrocytes with the side-effect of significantly decreasing ECM secretion. Highly-expressed miR-140-5p blocked this side-effect via RalA. SMSC-140-Exos enhanced the proliferation and migration of ACs without damaging ECM secretion in vitro, while in vivo, SMSC-140-Exos successfully prevented OA in a rat model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the promising potential of SMSC-140-Exos in preventing OA. We first found a potential source of exosomes and studied their merits and shortcomings. Based on our understanding of the molecular mechanism, we overcame the shortcomings by modifying the exosomes. Such exosomes derived from modified cells hold potential as future therapeutic strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                September 2018
                28 September 2018
                : 97
                : 39
                Affiliations
                [a ]Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin
                [b ]Department of Surgery, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Nankai Clinical School, Tianjin Medical University
                [c ]Department of Bone and Joint, Tianjin Union Medicine Center, PR China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Yunfeng Cui, 122 Sanwei Road Nankai District, Tianjin 300100, China (e-mail: yunfengcui126@ 123456126.com ).
                Article
                MD-D-18-01086 12632
                10.1097/MD.0000000000012632
                6181532
                30278585
                07123b85-3de3-4c88-b72e-093efa344813
                Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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