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      The role of fibrillin and microfibril binding proteins in elastin and elastic fibre assembly

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          Abstract

          Fibrillin is a large evolutionarily ancient extracellular glycoprotein that assembles to form beaded microfibrils which are essential components of most extracellular matrices. Fibrillin microfibrils have specific biomechanical properties to endow animal tissues with limited elasticity, a fundamental feature of the durable function of large blood vessels, skin and lungs. They also form a template for elastin deposition and provide a platform for microfibril-elastin binding proteins to interact in elastic fibre assembly. In addition to their structural role, fibrillin microfibrils mediate cell signalling via integrin and syndecan receptors, and microfibrils sequester transforming growth factor (TGF)β family growth factors within the matrix to provide a tissue store which is critical for homeostasis and remodelling.

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          Most cited references135

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          Elastic fiber homeostasis requires lysyl oxidase-like 1 protein.

          Elastic fibers are components of the extracellular matrix and confer resilience. Once laid down, they are thought to remain stable, except in the uterine tract where cycles of active remodeling occur. Loss of elastic fibers underlies connective tissue aging and important diseases including emphysema. Failure to maintain elastic fibers is explained by a theory of antielastase-elastase imbalance, but little is known about the role of renewal. Here we show that mice lacking the protein lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) do not deposit normal elastic fibers in the uterine tract post partum and develop pelvic organ prolapse, enlarged airspaces of the lung, loose skin and vascular abnormalities with concomitant tropoelastin accumulation. Distinct from the prototypic lysyl oxidase (LOX), LOXL1 localizes specifically to sites of elastogenesis and interacts with fibulin-5. Thus elastin polymer deposition is a crucial aspect of elastic fiber maintenance and is dependent on LOXL1, which serves both as a cross-linking enzyme and an element of the scaffold to ensure spatially defined deposition of elastin.
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            Asprosin, a Fasting-Induced Glucogenic Protein Hormone.

            Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin. Asprosin is secreted by white adipose, circulates at nanomolar levels, and is recruited to the liver, where it activates the G protein-cAMP-PKA pathway, resulting in rapid glucose release into the circulation. Humans and mice with insulin resistance show pathologically elevated plasma asprosin, and its loss of function via immunologic or genetic means has a profound glucose- and insulin-lowering effect secondary to reduced hepatic glucose release. Asprosin represents a glucogenic protein hormone, and therapeutically targeting it may be beneficial in type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
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              Fibulin-5 is an elastin-binding protein essential for elastic fibre development in vivo.

              Extracellular elastic fibres provide mechanical elasticity to tissues and contribute towards the processes of organ remodelling by affecting cell-cell signalling. The formation of elastic fibres requires the assembly and crosslinking of tropoelastin monomers, and organization of the resulting insoluble elastin matrix into functional fibres. The molecules and mechanisms involved in this process are unknown. Fibulin-5 (also known as EVEC/DANCE) is an extracellular matrix protein abundantly expressed in great vessels and cardiac valves during embryogenesis, and in many adult tissues including the aorta, lung, uterus and skin, all of which contain abundant elastic fibres. Here we show that fibulin-5 is a calcium-dependent, elastin-binding protein that localizes to the surface of elastic fibres in vivo. fibulin-5-/- mice develop marked elastinopathy owing to the disorganization of elastic fibres, with resulting loose skin, vascular abnormalities and emphysematous lung. This phenotype, which resembles the cutis laxa syndrome in humans, reveals a critical function for fibulin-5 as a scaffold protein that organizes and links elastic fibres to cells. This function may be mediated by the RGD motif in fibulin-5, which binds to cell surface integrins, and the Ca2+-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats, which bind elastin.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Matrix Biol
                Matrix Biol
                Matrix Biology
                Elsevier
                0945-053X
                1569-1802
                1 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 84
                : 17-30
                Affiliations
                Wellcome Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Division of Cell-Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                S0945-053X(19)30147-7
                10.1016/j.matbio.2019.06.006
                6943813
                31226403
                07165788-878d-4920-a49f-9d7ddb33e754
                © 2019 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 3 April 2019
                : 16 June 2019
                : 17 June 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology
                Molecular biology

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