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      Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 Immobilized Fabrication of Magnesium Functionalized Injectable Hydrogels for Controlled-Delivery and Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Femoral Head Necrosis Repair


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          Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a clinically progressive disease that leads to overwhelming complications without an effective therapeutic approach. In recent decades, transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has played a promising role in the treatment of FHN in the initial stage; however, the success rate is still low because of unsuitable cell carriers and abridged osteogenic differentiation of the transplanted MSCs. Biopolymeric-derived hydrogels have been extensively applied as effective cell carriers and drug vesicles; they provide the most promising contributions in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the clinical potential of hydrogels may be limited because of inappropriate gelation, swelling, mechanical characteristics, toxicity in the cross-linking process, and self-healing ability. Naturally, gelated commercial hydrogels are not suitable for cell injection and infiltration because of their static network structure. In this study, we designed a novel thermogelling injectable hydrogel using natural silk fibroin-blended chitosan (CS) incorporated with magnesium (Mg) substitutes to improve physical cross-linking, stability, and cell osteogenic compatibility. The presented observations demonstrate that the developed injectable hydrogels can facilitate the controlled delivery of immobilized recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBMSCs) with greater cell encapsulation efficiency, compatibility, and osteogenic differentiation. In addition, outcomes of in vivo animal studies established promising osteoinductive, bone mineral density, and bone formation rate after implantation of the injectable hydrogel scaffolds. Therefore, the developed hydrogels have great potential for clinical applications of FHN therapy.

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          Osteogenic magnesium incorporated into PLGA/TCP porous scaffold by 3D printing for repairing challenging bone defect

          Bone defect repair is a challenging clinical problem in musculoskeletal system, especially in orthopaedic disorders such as steroid associated osteonecrosis (SAON). Magnesium (Mg) as a biodegradable metal with properly mechanical properties has been investigating for a long history. In this study, Mg powder, poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were the elements to formulate a novel porous PLGA/TCP/Mg (PTM) scaffolds using low temperature rapid prototyping (LT-RP) technology. The physical characterization of PTM scaffold and Mg ions release were analyzed in vitro. The osteogenic and angiogenic properties of PTM scaffolds, as well as the biosafety after implantation were assessed in an established SAON rabbit model. Our results showed that the PTM scaffold possessed well-designed bio-mimic structure and improved mechanical properties. Findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and micro-computed tomography (micro CT)-based angiography indicated that PTM scaffold could increase blood perfusion and promote new vessel ingrowth at 4 weeks after surgery, meanwhile, a plenty of newly formed vessels with well-architective structure were observed at 8 weeks. Correspondingly, at 12 weeks after surgery, micro-CT, histological and mechanical properties analysis showed that PTM could significant enhance new bone formation and strengthen newly formed bone mechanical properties. The mean bone volume in PTM group was 56.3% greater than that in PT group. Biosafety assessments from 0 to 12 weeks after implantation did not induce increase in serum Mg ions concentration, and immune response, liver and kidney function parameters were all at normal level. These findings suggested that the PTM scaffold had both osteogenic and angiogenic abilities which were synergistic effect in enhancing new bone formation and strengthen newly formed bone quality in SAON. In summary, PTM scaffolds are promising composite biomaterials for repairing challenging bone defect that would have great potential for its clinical translation.
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            Autologous bone marrow cell implantation in the treatment of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Five year follow-up of a prospective controlled study.

            To determine the efficacy of bone marrow cell implantation into the necrotic lesion of the femoral head on clinical symptoms and the progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in comparison with core decompression. We studied nineteen patients and twenty four hips with early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The hips were allocated to either core decompression only or core decompression and implantation of bone marrow cells. Both patients and assessors were blind with respect to treatment group assignment. The primary outcomes were clinical symptoms and disease progression. Bone marrow implantation afforded a significant reduction in pain and in joint symptoms and reduced the incidence of fractural stages. At 60 months, eight of the eleven hips in the control group had deteriorated to the fractural stage whereas only three of the thirteen hips in the bone marrow graft group had progressed to that stage. Survival analysis showed a significant difference in the time to failure between the two groups at 60 months. Patients had only minor side-effects after the treatments. This long term follow-up study confirmed that implantation of autologous bone marrow cells in the necrotic lesion might be an effective treatment for patients with early stages of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Vascularized bone grafting fixed by biodegradable magnesium screw for treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

              Hip-preserving surgery with vascularized bone graft implantation has been widely practiced in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). However, the current approach presents a drawback, in which the implanted bone graft without screw fixation may slip or exhibit a certain degree of displacement postoperatively. This study was designed to investigate the application potential of biodegradable magnesium (Mg) screws for the fixation of vascularized bone graft in ONFH patients. Forty-eight patients were randomly divided into two groups: the Mg screw group (vascularized bone grafting fixed by Mg screws) and the control group (vascularized bone grafting without fixation). During 12 month follow-up period after surgery, treatment outcomes in patients were assessed by multiple imaging techniques including x-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as functional recovery Harris hip score (HHS). The temporal changes in serum levels of Mg, Ca, and P as well as in vivo degradation rate of Mg screws were determined. The absence of potential adverse effects induced by degradation products from Mg screws on surrounding bone tissue was validated via CT imaging analysis. HHS was significantly improved in the Mg screw group when compared to the control group. X-ray imaging analysis showed that the screw shape did not show significant alteration due to the diameter of Mg screws measured with approximate 25% reduction within 12 months post-surgically. The postoperative serum levels of Ca, Mg, and P, which are relevant for liver and kidney function, were all within normal physiological range in all patients of both groups. The use of biodegradable Mg screws may provide a promising bone graft-screw fixation route in treating ONFH and present considerable potential for orthopedic applications.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                25 November 2021
                : 9
                : 723789
                [1] 1Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology , Luoyang, China
                [2] 2Clinical Medical College, Henan University of Science and Technology , Luoyang, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Laura Iop, University of Padua, Italy

                Reviewed by: Hae-Won Kim, Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), South Korea; Nathaniel Hwang, Seoul National University, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Mingyue Xiong, mingyue.xiong@ 123456yahoo.com

                This article was submitted to Stem Cell Research, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Copyright © 2021 Lu, Guo, Li, Sun and Xiong.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 11 June 2021
                : 23 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 64, Pages: 16, Words: 11797
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Original Research

                femoral head necrosis,cell encapsulation,injectable hydrogel,stem cells,magnesium


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