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      Tspan18 is a novel regulator of thrombo-inflammation

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          Abstract

          The interplay between thrombosis and inflammation, termed thrombo-inflammation, causes acute organ damage in diseases such as ischaemic stroke and venous thrombosis. We have recently identified tetraspanin Tspan18 as a novel regulator of thrombo-inflammation. The tetraspanins are a family of 33 membrane proteins in humans that regulate the trafficking, clustering, and membrane diffusion of specific partner proteins. Tspan18 partners with the store-operated Ca 2+ entry channel Orai1 on endothelial cells. Orai1 appears to be expressed in all cells and is critical in health and disease. Orai1 mutations cause human immunodeficiency, resulting in chronic and often lethal infections, while Orai1-knockout mice die at around the time of birth. Orai1 is a promising drug target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and Orai1 inhibitors are in clinical trials. The focus of this review is our work on Tspan18 and Orai1 in Tspan18-knockout mice and Tspan18-knockdown primary human endothelial cells. Orai1 trafficking to the cell surface is partially impaired in the absence of Tspan18, resulting in impaired Ca 2+ signaling and impaired release of the thrombo-inflammatory mediator von Willebrand factor following endothelial stimulation. As a consequence, Tspan18-knockout mice are protected in ischemia–reperfusion and deep vein thrombosis models. We provide new evidence that Tspan18 is relatively highly expressed in endothelial cells, through the analysis of publicly available single-cell transcriptomic data. We also present new data, showing that Tspan18 is required for normal Ca 2+ signaling in platelets, but the functional consequences are subtle and restricted to mildly defective platelet aggregation and spreading induced by the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. Finally, we generate structural models of human Tspan18 and Orai1 and hypothesize that Tspan18 regulates Orai1 Ca 2+ channel function at the cell surface by promoting its clustering.

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          Most cited references 53

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          A mutation in Orai1 causes immune deficiency by abrogating CRAC channel function.

          Antigen stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, promoting the immune response to pathogens by activating the transcription factor NFAT. We have previously shown that cells from patients with one form of hereditary severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) syndrome are defective in store-operated Ca2+ entry and CRAC channel function. Here we identify the genetic defect in these patients, using a combination of two unbiased genome-wide approaches: a modified linkage analysis with single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and a Drosophila RNA interference screen designed to identify regulators of store-operated Ca2+ entry and NFAT nuclear import. Both approaches converged on a novel protein that we call Orai1, which contains four putative transmembrane segments. The SCID patients are homozygous for a single missense mutation in ORAI1, and expression of wild-type Orai1 in SCID T cells restores store-operated Ca2+ influx and the CRAC current (I(CRAC)). We propose that Orai1 is an essential component or regulator of the CRAC channel complex.
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            CRACM1 is a plasma membrane protein essential for store-operated Ca2+ entry.

             M Vig,  C. Peinelt,  A. Beck (2006)
            Store-operated Ca2+ entry is mediated by Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels following Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that inhibit store-operated Ca2+ influx. A secondary patch-clamp screen identified CRACM1 and CRACM2 (CRAC modulators 1 and 2) as modulators of Drosophila CRAC currents. We characterized the human ortholog of CRACM1, a plasma membrane-resident protein encoded by gene FLJ14466. Although overexpression of CRACM1 did not affect CRAC currents, RNAi-mediated knockdown disrupted its activation. CRACM1 could be the CRAC channel itself, a subunit of it, or a component of the CRAC signaling machinery.
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              Crystal structure of the calcium release-activated calcium channel Orai.

              The plasma membrane protein Orai forms the pore of the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel and generates sustained cytosolic calcium signals when triggered by depletion of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. The crystal structure of Orai from Drosophila melanogaster, determined at 3.35 angstrom resolution, reveals that the calcium channel is composed of a hexameric assembly of Orai subunits arranged around a central ion pore. The pore traverses the membrane and extends into the cytosol. A ring of glutamate residues on its extracellular side forms the selectivity filter. A basic region near the intracellular side can bind anions that may stabilize the closed state. The architecture of the channel differs markedly from other ion channels and gives insight into the principles of selective calcium permeation and gating.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                m.g.tomlinson@bham.ac.uk
                Journal
                Med Microbiol Immunol
                Med. Microbiol. Immunol
                Medical Microbiology and Immunology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0300-8584
                1432-1831
                23 May 2020
                23 May 2020
                2020
                : 209
                : 4
                : 553-564
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.6572.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7486, School of Biosciences, , University of Birmingham, ; Birmingham, UK
                Author notes

                Edited by Charlotte M. de Winde.

                Article
                678
                10.1007/s00430-020-00678-y
                7395042
                32447449
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000268, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council;
                Award ID: PhD Studentship
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000274, British Heart Foundation;
                Award ID: FS/18/9/33388
                Award Recipient :
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

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