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      Association of alpha1a-adrenergic receptor polymorphism and blood pressure phenotypes in the Brazilian population

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          Abstract

          Background

          The alpha1A-adrenergic receptor (α 1A-AR) regulates the cardiac and peripheral vascular system through sympathetic activation. Due to its important role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure, we aimed to investigate the association between the Arg347Cys polymorphism in the α 1A-AR gene and blood pressure phenotypes, in a large sample of Brazilians from an urban population.

          Methods

          A total of 1568 individuals were randomly selected from the general population of the Vitória City metropolitan area. Genetic analysis of the Arg347Cys polymorphism was conducted by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. We have compared cardiovascular risk variables and genotypes using ANOVA, and Chi-square test for univariate comparisons and logistic regression for multivariate comparisons.

          Results

          Association analysis indicated a significant difference between genotype groups with respect to diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.04), but not systolic blood pressure (p = 0.12). In addition, presence of the Cys/Cys genotype was marginally associated with hypertension in our population (p = 0.06). Significant interaction effects were observed between the studied genetic variant, age and physical activity. Presence of the Cys/Cys genotype was associated with hypertension only in individuals with regular physical activity (odds ratio = 1.86; p = 0.03) or younger than 45 years (odds ratio = 1.27; p = 0.04).

          Conclusion

          Physical activity and age may potentially play a role by disclosing the effects of the Cys allele on blood pressure. According to our data it is possible that the Arg347Cys polymorphism can be used as a biomarker to disease risk in a selected group of individuals.

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          Most cited references 28

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          The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report.

          "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure" provides a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. The following are the key messages(1) In persons older than 50 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) of more than 140 mm Hg is a much more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; (2) The risk of CVD, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; individuals who are normotensive at 55 years of age have a 90% lifetime risk for developing hypertension; (3) Individuals with a systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg should be considered as prehypertensive and require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent CVD; (4) Thiazide-type diuretics should be used in drug treatment for most patients with uncomplicated hypertension, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes. Certain high-risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); (5) Most patients with hypertension will require 2 or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease); (6) If BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal BP, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 2 agents, 1 of which usually should be a thiazide-type diuretic; and (7) The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension only if patients are motivated. Motivation improves when patients have positive experiences with and trust in the clinician. Empathy builds trust and is a potent motivator. Finally, in presenting these guidelines, the committee recognizes that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.
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            Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III)

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              A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central
                1471-2261
                2008
                23 December 2008
                : 8
                : 40
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute/InCor, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Laboratory of Human Genetics, Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, Espírito Santo Federal University, Vitória, Brazil
                1471-2261-8-40
                10.1186/1471-2261-8-40
                2630987
                19105822
                Copyright © 2008 Freitas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

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