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      Paeoniflorin Ameliorates Chronic Hypoxia/SU5416-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension by Inhibiting Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

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          Abstract

          Background

          Endothelial cells dysfunction is one of the hallmark pathogenic features of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Paeoniflorin (PF) is a monoterpene glycoside with endothelial protection, vasodilation, antifibrotic, anti–inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, the effects of PF on PAH remain unknown.

          Methods

          Here, we investigated the efficacy of PF in the SU5416/hypoxia (SuHx) rat model of PAH. Human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs) were exposed to 1% O 2 with or without PF treatment.

          Results

          Hemodynamics analysis showed that prophylactic treatment with PF (300 mg/kg i.g. daily for 21 days) significantly inhibited chronic hypoxia/SU5416-induced elevations of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index in rats. Meanwhile, PF significantly reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling, as well as alleviated collagen deposition in lungs and right ventricles in SuHx rats. Additionally, PF inhibited SuHx–induced down-regulation of endothelial marker (vascular endothelial cadherin) and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers (fibronectin and vimentin) in lung, suggesting that PF could inhibit SuHx–induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in lung. Further in vitro studies confirmed that PF treatment suppressed hypoxia-induced EndMT in HPAECs, which was abolished by the knockdown of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) in HPAECs.

          Conclusion

          Taken together, our findings suggest that PF ameliorates BMPR2 down-regulation-mediated EndMT and thereafter alleviates SuHx–induced PAH in rats.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Targeted gene delivery of BMPR2 attenuates pulmonary hypertension.

          Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a fatal disease despite modern pharmacotherapy. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) lead to reduced BMPR2 expression, which is causally linked to PAH. BMPR2 is predominantly expressed on pulmonary endothelium and has complex interactions with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling mechanisms. Our objectives were to assess the effect on PAH of upregulating BMPR2 by targeted adenoviral BMPR2 gene delivery to the pulmonary vascular endothelium. We used two established rat models of PAH: chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline (MCT). In both hypertensive models, those receiving BMPR2 had less right ventricular hypertrophy, less pulmonary vascular resistance, improved cardiac function and reduced vascular remodelling. In the MCT model, there was an increase in TGF-β, which was prevented by BMPR2 treatment. In vitro, TGF-β1-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, which was associated with reduced BMPR2 expression. EndMT was partially ameliorated by stimulating BMPR2 signalling with appropriate ligands even in the ongoing presence of TGF-β1. Collectively, these results indicate therapeutic potential for upregulation of the BMPR2 axis in PAH, which may be, in part, mediated by countering the remodelling effects of TGF-β.
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            High frequency of BMPR2 exonic deletions/duplications in familial pulmonary arterial hypertension.

            Previous studies have shown that approximately 55% of patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) have BMPR2 coding sequence mutations. However, direct sequencing does not detect other types of heterozygous mutations, such as exonic deletions/duplications. To estimate the frequency of BMPR2 exonic deletions/duplications in FPAH. BMPR2 mRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines of 30 families with PAH and 14 patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) was subjected to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. Sequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify point mutations in splice donor/acceptor sites. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect exonic deletions/duplications with verification by real-time PCR. Eleven (37%) patients with FPAH had abnormally sized RT-PCR products. Four of the 11 patients were found to have splice-site mutations resulting in aberrant splicing, and exonic deletions/duplications were detected in the remaining seven patients. MLPA identified three deletions/duplications that were not detectable by RT-PCR. Coding sequence point mutations were identified in 11 of 30 (37%) patients. Mutations were identified in 21 of 30 (70%) patients with FPAH, with 10 of 21 mutations (48%) being exonic deletions/duplications. Two of 14 (14%) patients with IPAH exhibited BMPR2 point mutations, whereas none showed exonic deletions/duplications. Our study indicates that BMPR2 exonic deletions/duplications in patients with FPAH account for a significant proportion of mutations (48%) that until now have not been screened for. Because the complementary approach used in this study is rapid and cost effective, screening for BMPR2 deletions/duplications by MLPA and real-time PCR should accompany direct sequencing in all PAH testing.
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              Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

               Maneeton,  DeRosa,  SE Sedykh (2015)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                19 March 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1191-1202
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Changzhou No.2 People’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , Changzhou 213003, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai 200433, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hui Kong; Hong Wang Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu210029, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-25-68136426Fax +86-25-68136269 Email konghui@njmu.edu.cn; hongwang@njmu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                235207
                10.2147/DDDT.S235207
                7090222
                © 2020 Yu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 39, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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