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      Oxidative stress in severe dengue viral infection: association of thrombocytopenia with lipid peroxidation.


      Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Antioxidants, metabolism, Disease Outbreaks, Female, Humans, Lipid Peroxidation, Male, Malondialdehyde, blood, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, physiology, Platelet Count, Protein Carbonylation, Severe Dengue, Thrombocytopenia, virology, Young Adult

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          Oxidative stress in viral infections has been suggested. The study was carried out to assess the oxidative stress in the different clinical spectrums of dengue infection and to evaluate if thrombocytopenia is associated with lipid and protein oxidative injury. Twenty-seven dengue fever (DF), 32 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 21 dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases were studied at 3, 5 and 7 days of illness. Sixty-three healthy subjects were selected as controls. Serum protein carbonyls (PCOs), malendialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated in blood. Dengue infected individuals had significantly high levels of PCOs and MDA on the three days tested in comparison to controls. In DF cases, no significant changes in the levels of MDA and PCOs were found in course of time. However, among DHF and DSS, significant increase in MDA levels was found in the fifth and seventh day samples in comparison to their respective third day sample (P < 0.05). Using one way ANOVA, high PCOs levels were found in DSS in comparison to DF and DHF cases on all the three days tested (P < 0.001). TAS levels were found to be low among DSS on days 5 and 7 and day 7 in DHF when compared with DF cases. Correlation analysis between MDA and hematocrit revealed a significant positive association between them in DHF and DSS on day 5 (DHF r = 0.372; p = 0.024 and DSS r = 0.535; p = 0.0-01) and day 7 (DHF r = 0.412; p = 0.003 and DSS r = 0.765; p < 0.0001). There was an important negative correlation between platelet count and plasma lipid peroxidation levels among DHF and DSS on all three days tested [day 3 (DHF r = -0.392; p = 0.012 and DSS r = -0.453; p = 0.004), day 5 (DHF r = -0.592; p < 0.001 and DSS r = -0.581; p < 0.001) and day 7 (DHF r = -0.418; p = 0.001 and DSS r = -0.515; p = 0.002)]. This study concludes that an increase in oxidative stress was found in dengue viral infection. The level of oxidative stress was maximal in DSS followed by DHF and its severity was minimal in DF. The thrombocytopenia of dengue infection was associated with the extent of lipid peroxidation. Future studies might be carried out to find the role of oxidative damage in the ethiopathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and vascular leakage in dengue infection.

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