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      Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated.

          Methods

          A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS.

          Results

          Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05), education (p<0.05), and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001) in SAS.

          Conclusions

          This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.

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          Most cited references 8

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          'Behavioral' addictions: do they exist?

           Alan Holden (2001)
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            Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

            Internet addiction is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding computer use and internet access that lead to impairment or distress. The condition has attracted increasing attention in the popular media and among researchers, and this attention has paralleled the growth in computer (and Internet) access. Prevalence estimates vary widely, although a recent random telephone survey of the general US population reported an estimate of 0.3-0.7%. The disorder occurs worldwide, but mainly in countries where computer access and technology are widespread. Clinical samples and a majority of relevant surveys report a male preponderance. Onset is reported to occur in the late 20s or early 30s age group, and there is often a lag of a decade or more from initial to problematic computer usage. Internet addiction has been associated with dimensionally measured depression and indicators of social isolation. Psychiatric co-morbidity is common, particularly mood, anxiety, impulse control and substance use disorders. Aetiology is unknown, but probably involves psychological, neurobiological and cultural factors. There are no evidence-based treatments for internet addiction. Cognitive behavioural approaches may be helpful. There is no proven role for psychotropic medication. Marital and family therapy may help in selected cases, and online self-help books and tapes are available. Lastly, a self-imposed ban on computer use and Internet access may be necessary in some cases.
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              Internet Addiction

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2013
                27 February 2013
                : 8
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Addiction Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Paul's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [4 ]Department of Psychology, College of Social Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                [6 ]Addiction Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
                Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: MK J-YL D-JK. Performed the experiments: MK W-YW J-HC. Analyzed the data: MK J-WP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: J-AM CH. Wrote the paper: MK J-YL XG.

                Article
                PONE-D-12-27008
                10.1371/journal.pone.0056936
                3584150
                23468893

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Funding
                The study was supported by a grant of the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (A120157). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine
                Clinical Research Design
                Survey Research
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Mental Health
                Psychiatry
                Substance Abuse
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Public Health
                Behavioral and Social Aspects of Health
                Social and Behavioral Sciences
                Sociology
                Social Research

                Uncategorized

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