Planarians, the representatives of an ancient bilaterian group with complex reproductive system and high regenerative capabilities, are model system suitable for studying the basic molecular requirements for the development of the reproductive system. To further explore the morphological changes of the gonads during desexualization and the molecular events of the genes controlling the reproductive system development in planarians, we have investigated the histological changes of ovary and testis by paraffin section and the expression patterns of reproductive-related genes by the quantitative real-time PCR in Dugesiajaponica Ichikawa & Kawakatsu, 1964, upon starvation. The four genes, Djprps, DjvlgA, DjvlgB and Djnos, have been selected. The research results show that the degradation of ovary changes from outside layer to inside, and the testis changes are opposite; the reproductive capacity of the planarians starts to be damaged from the 17 th to 25 th days and to disappear completely from the 26 th to 37 th days during starvation. The expression patterns of the four genes exhibit the obvious dynamic variations during their desexualization, which indicates that these genes might be involved in gonad development.