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      Haptics: The Present and Future of Artificial Touch Sensation

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      Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          This article reviews the technology behind creating artificial touch sensations and the relevant aspects of human touch. We focus on the design and control of haptic devices and discuss the best practices for generating distinct and effective touch sensations. Artificial haptic sensations can present information to users, help them complete a task, augment or replace the other senses, and add immersiveness and realism to virtual interactions. We examine these applications in the context of different haptic feedback modalities and the forms that haptic devices can take. We discuss the prior work, limitations, and design considerations of each feedback modality and individual haptic technology. We also address the need to consider the neuroscience and perception behind the human sense of touch in the design and control of haptic devices.

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          Most cited references 132

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          Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks.

          During object manipulation tasks, the brain selects and implements action-phase controllers that use sensory predictions and afferent signals to tailor motor output to the physical properties of the objects involved. Analysis of signals in tactile afferent neurons and central processes in humans reveals how contact events are encoded and used to monitor and update task performance.
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            Soft robotic glove for combined assistance and at-home rehabilitation

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              Intracortical microstimulation of human somatosensory cortex.

              Intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex offers the potential for creating a sensory neuroprosthesis to restore tactile sensation. Whereas animal studies have suggested that both cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts can be evoked using this approach, the perceptual quality of the stimuli cannot be measured in these experiments. We show that microstimulation within the hand area of the somatosensory cortex of a person with long-term spinal cord injury evokes tactile sensations perceived as originating from locations on the hand and that cortical stimulation sites are organized according to expected somatotopic principles. Many of these percepts exhibit naturalistic characteristics (including feelings of pressure), can be evoked at low stimulation amplitudes, and remain stable for months. Further, modulating the stimulus amplitude grades the perceptual intensity of the stimuli, suggesting that intracortical microstimulation could be used to convey information about the contact location and pressure necessary to perform dexterous hand movements associated with object manipulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems
                Annu. Rev. Control Robot. Auton. Syst.
                Annual Reviews
                2573-5144
                May 28 2018
                May 28 2018
                : 1
                : 1
                : 385-409
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA;,
                [2 ]Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-control-060117-105043
                © 2018

                Social policy & Welfare, Medicine, Psychology, Engineering, Public health, Life sciences

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