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      The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease

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          Abstract

          Regular exercise reduces the risk of chronic metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, in part because exercise exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects are also likely to be responsible for the suppressed immunity that makes elite athletes more susceptible to infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise may be mediated via both a reduction in visceral fat mass (with a subsequent decreased release of adipokines) and the induction of an anti-inflammatory environment with each bout of exercise. In this Review, we focus on the known mechanisms by which exercise - both acute and chronic - exerts its anti-inflammatory effects, and we discuss the implications of these effects for the prevention and treatment of disease.

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          Most cited references68

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          MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity.

          Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Mice engineered to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue induced by a high-fat diet were reduced extensively in MCP-1 homozygous KO mice compared with WT animals. Finally, acute expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MCP-1 ameliorated insulin resistance in db/db mice and in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice.
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            Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self.

            Naturally arising CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells actively maintain immunological self-tolerance. Deficiency in or dysfunction of these cells can be a cause of autoimmune disease. A reduction in their number or function can also elicit tumor immunity, whereas their antigen-specific population expansion can establish transplantation tolerance. They are therefore a good target for designing ways to induce or abrogate immunological tolerance to self and non-self antigens.
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              Macrophage activation and polarization

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                September 2011
                August 5 2011
                September 2011
                : 11
                : 9
                : 607-615
                Article
                10.1038/nri3041
                21818123
                07453e37-d884-4c86-961e-50b904903190
                © 2011

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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