The article is aimed at analyzing the available research and comparing the properties of bio-inductive materials in direct and indirect pulp capping procedures. The properties and clinical performances of four calcium-silicate cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, RetroMTA, Biodentine), a light-cured calcium silicate-based material (TheraCal LC) and an enhanced resin-modified glass-ionomer (ACTIVA BioACTIVE) are widely discussed. A correlation of in vitro and in vivo data revealed that, currently, the most validated material for pulp capping procedures is still MTA. Despite Biodentine’s superiority in relatively easier manipulation, competitive pricing and predictable clinical outcome, more long-term clinical studies on Biodentine as a pulp capping agent are needed. According to available research, there is also insufficient evidence to support the use of TheraCal LC or ACTIVA BioACTIVE BASE/LINER in vital pulp therapy.