P.M. Rossini a , D. Burke b , R. Chen c , L.G. Cohen d , Z. Daskalakis e , R. Di Iorio a , V. Di Lazzaro f , F. Ferreri f , g , P.B. Fitzgerald h , M.S. George i , M. Hallett j , J.P. Lefaucheur k , l , B. Langguth m , H. Matsumoto n , C. Miniussi o , p , M.A. Nitsche q , A. Pascual-Leone r , W. Paulus s , S. Rossi t , J.C. Rothwell u , H.R. Siebner v , w , Y. Ugawa x , V. Walsh y , U. Ziemann z
10 February 2015
These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on “Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application” ( Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 “Report”, was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience.
Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain–behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety ( Rossi et al., 2009), methodology ( Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications ( Lefaucheur et al., 2014).
This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.