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      Telbivudine treatment of hepatitis B virus-infected pregnant women at different gestational stages for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission : Outcomes of telbivudine treatment during pregnancy

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          This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.

          Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination. Mothers and infants were followed for 7 months after birth.

          Pregnancy outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. HBV MTCT rates in the early and late treatment and control groups were 0, 0, and 4.69%, respectively. The rates of infant vaccination success among the 3 groups were similar, as were neonatal outcomes including birth weights, asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, Apgar score, birth defects, and weight and height at 7 months. Puerperal discontinuation of telbivudine did not increase the alanine transaminase value at 7 months after birth, but increased serum HBV DNA levels, and rates of positive hepatitis Be-antigen.

          Telbivudine treatment in HBV-infected pregnant women was associated with lower serum HBV DNA levels and reduced rates of HBV MTCT; there were no associated changes in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes at birth or 7 months after birth, or in the rate of infant vaccination success. Puerperal drug withdrawal after short-term antiviral therapy will not influence hepatic function, but may increase virus replication.

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          Most cited references 29

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          EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

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            Asian-Pacific consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B: a 2008 update

            Large amounts of new data on the natural history and treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have become available since 2005. These include long-term follow-up studies in large community-based cohorts or asymptomatic subjects with chronic HBV infection, further studies on the role of HBV genotype/naturally occurring HBV mutations, treatment of drug resistance and new therapies. In addition, Pegylated interferon α2a, entecavir and telbivudine have been approved globally. To update HBV management guidelines, relevant new data were reviewed and assessed by experts from the region, and the significance of the reported findings were discussed and debated. The earlier “Asian-Pacific consensus statement on the management of chronic hepatitis B” was revised accordingly. The key terms used in the statement were also defined. The new guidelines include general management, special indications for liver biopsy in patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase, time to start or stop drug therapy, choice of drug to initiate therapy, when and how to monitor the patients during and after stopping drug therapy. Recommendations on the therapy of patients in special circumstances, including women in childbearing age, patients with antiviral drug resistance, concurrent viral infection, hepatic decompensation, patients receiving immune-suppressive medications or chemotherapy and patients in the setting of liver transplantation, are also included.
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              Virologic factors associated with failure to passive-active immunoprophylaxis in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers.

              In infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers, failure after passive-active immunization still occurs. The role of maternal hepatitis B DNA level and other risk factors in this setting remains unclear. This study retrospectively evaluated virologic and other risk factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Between January 2007 and March 2010, we reviewed the clinical and virologic tests in 869 mother-infant pairs. All infants received the identical passive-active immunization schedule after birth. The failure infants (HBsAg positive at 7-12 months of age) were compared to infants who were HBsAg negative when tested during this time period. Among 869 infants, 27 (3.1%) infants were immunoprophylaxis failures and the other 842 (96.9%) infants remained HBsAg negative. When mothers' pre-delivery HBV DNA levels were stratified to <6, 6-6.99, 7-7.99 and ≥ 8 log(10) copies/mL, the corresponding rates of immunoprophylaxis failure were 0%, 3.2% (3/95), 6.7% (19/282) and 7.6% (5/66), respectively (P < 0.001 for the trend). All failure infants were born to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive mothers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified maternal HBV DNA levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-3.30] and detectable HBV DNA in the cord blood (OR = 39.67, 95% CI: 14.22-110.64) as independent risk factors for immunoprophylaxis failure. All failure infants were born to HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA levels ≥ 6 log(10) copies/mL. The presence of HBV DNA in cord blood predicted failure to passive-active immunization. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                October 2016
                07 October 2016
                : 95
                : 40
                Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Yuzhu Yin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China (e-mail: yzzst2011@ ).
                Copyright © 2016 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives License 4.0, which allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to the author.

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