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Anemia e nível de hemoglobina em gestantes de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, antes e após a fortificação compulsória de farinhas com ferro e ácido fólico, 2003-2006 Translated title: Anemia and hemoglobin levels in pregnant women from Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil, before and after the mandatory flour fortification with iron and folic acid, 2003-2006 Translated title: Anemia y niveles de hemoglobina en mujeres embarazadas de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil, antes y después de la fortificación obligatoria de la harina con hierro y ácido fólico, 2003-2006

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      Abstract

      OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de anemia e níveis de hemoglobina de gestantes, antes e após a fortificação compulsória de farinhas com ferro, e os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: foram comparadas duas amostras transversais independentes de gestantes de Cuiabá-MT, Brasil (2003 a 2006), alocadas em dois grupos - não fortificado (n=414) e fortificado (n=539); realizou-se análise de regressão logística e linear, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença entre os grupos não fortificado e fortificado, na prevalência de anemia (22,2% e 27,8%, respectivamente; p=0,051) e no nível de hemoglobina (ambos com média de 11,7g/dL; p=0,058); maior prevalência de anemia e menor média de hemoglobina associaram-se com maior número de gestações anteriores, maior idade gestacional e baixo peso no início da gestação. CONCLUSÕES: não se encontrou efeito significativo da fortificação compulsória de farinhas, embora a avaliação da gestação indique alta prevalência de anemia e variáveis importantes a serem consideradas.

      Translated abstract

      OBJECTIVE: to evaluate prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among pregnant women before and after mandatory flour fortification with iron, and to investigate associated factors. METHODS: We compared two independent cross-sectional samples of pregnant women from Cuiaba-MT, Brazil (2003 to 2006), divided into two groups: not-fortified (n=414) and fortified (n=539); we conducted logistic and linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: there were no differences between the not-fortified and fortified groups with regard to the prevalence of anemia (22.2% and 27.8%, respectively; p=0.051) and hemoglobin level (mean=11.7g/dL; p=0.058); higher anemia prevalence and lower mean hemoglobin levels were associated with a higher number of previous pregnancies, greater gestational age and lower weight in early pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: the study shows no significant effect of mandatory flour fortification with iron, but it highlights an important prevalence of anemia and associated factors that must be considered in the evaluation of anemia in pregnancy.

      Translated abstract

      OBJETIVO: evaluar la prevalencia de anemia y niveles de hemoglobina en mujeres embarazadas antes y después de la fortificación obligatoria de la harina con hierro y los factores asociados. MÉTODOS: se compararon dos muestras transversales independientes de mujeres embarazadas de Cuiabá-MT, Brasil (2003-2006), divididos en dos grupos: no-fortificado (n=414) y fortificado (n=539); realizamos análisis de regresión logística y lineal, con nivel de significación de 5%. RESULTADOS: no hubo diferencia, entre los grupos, en la prevalencia de anemia (22,2% y 27,8%, respectivamente; p=0,051) o en la concentración de hemoglobina (media en ambos=11,7g/dL; p=0,058); mayor prevalencia de anemia y menor concentración de hemoglobina se asociaron con mayor número de embarazos previos, mayor edad y bajo peso al inicio del embarazo. CONCLUSIONES: no encontramos un efecto significativo de la fortificación obligatoria de harinas, sin embargo mostramos una alta prevalencia de anemia y variables importantes que deben ser consideradas en la evaluación de anemia en el embarazo.

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      Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.

      Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

        Summary Background Low haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia are important risk factors for the health and development of women and children. We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011. Methods We obtained data about haemoglobin and anaemia for children aged 6–59 months and women of childbearing age (15–49 years) from 257 population-representative data sources from 107 countries worldwide. We used health, nutrition, and household surveys; summary statistics from WHO's Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System; and summary statistics reported by other national and international agencies. We used a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. We quantified the uncertainty of our estimates. Findings Global mean haemoglobin improved slightly between 1995 and 2011, from 125 g/L (95% credibility interval 123–126) to 126 g/L (124–128) in non-pregnant women, from 112 g/L (111–113) to 114 g/L (112–116) in pregnant women, and from 109 g/L (107–111) to 111 g/L (110–113) in children. Anaemia prevalence decreased from 33% (29–37) to 29% (24–35) in non-pregnant women, from 43% (39–47) to 38% (34–43) in pregnant women, and from 47% (43–51) to 43% (38–47) in children. These prevalences translated to 496 million (409–595 million) non-pregnant women, 32 million (28–36 million) pregnant women, and 273 million (242–304 million) children with anaemia in 2011. In 2011, concentrations of mean haemoglobin were lowest and anaemia prevalence was highest in south Asia and central and west Africa. Interpretation Children's and women's haemoglobin statuses improved in some regions where concentrations had been low in the 1990s, leading to a modest global increase in mean haemoglobin and a reduction in anaemia prevalence. Further improvements are needed in some regions, particularly south Asia and central and west Africa, to improve the health of women and children and achieve global targets for reducing anaemia. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, and the UK Medical Research Council.
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          Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição

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            Author and article information

            Contributors
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            Journal
            ress
            Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde
            Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde
            Ministério da Saúde do Brasil (Brasília )
            1679-4974
            September 2015
            : 24
            : 3
            : 453-464
            S2237-96222015000300453
            10.5123/S1679-49742015000300011

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Product Information: SciELO Public Health
            Categories
            Health Care Sciences & Services
            Health Policy & Services

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