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      Iniquidades sociais no consumo alimentar no Brasil: uma revisão crítica dos inquéritos nacionais Translated title: Social inequities in food consumption in Brazil: a critical review of the national surveys

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          Abstract

          Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é investigar a associação entre posição socioeconômica e o consumo alimentar entre os brasileiros para poder compreender como os grandes inquéritos nacionais estão contribuindo na identificação de desigualdades sociais e ecológicas neste último. Revisão sistemática da literatura de publicações que analisaram a relação entre posição socioeconômica e consumo alimentar nos grandes inquéritos nacionais. A definição de posição socioeconômica, seleção das suas variáveis indicadoras e a análise crítica de sua operacionalização basearam-se na epidemiologia ecossocial. Indivíduos em menor posição socioeconômica - cor da pele/raça parda ou negra, menor escolaridade e renda e de áreas rurais - têm menor probabilidade de consumir uma alimentação diversificada e saudável. Já os efeitos do gênero e da situação conjugal só poderiam ser melhor compreendidos com um recorte social. As variáveis de posição socioeconômica formam uma complexa teia de causalidade que ajuda a explicar a determinação do consumo alimentar dos brasileiros e a denunciar as iniquidades sociais na alimentação e nutrição. Há a necessidade de maior clareza conceitual a respeito da medição dos parâmetros para alcançar maior precisão sobre as causas das desigualdades sociais em alimentação.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Does social class predict diet quality?

          A large body of epidemiologic data show that diet quality follows a socioeconomic gradient. Whereas higher-quality diets are associated with greater affluence, energy-dense diets that are nutrient-poor are preferentially consumed by persons of lower socioeconomic status (SES) and of more limited economic means. As this review demonstrates, whole grains, lean meats, fish, low-fat dairy products, and fresh vegetables and fruit are more likely to be consumed by groups of higher SES. In contrast, the consumption of refined grains and added fats has been associated with lower SES. Although micronutrient intake and, hence, diet quality are affected by SES, little evidence indicates that SES affects either total energy intakes or the macronutrient composition of the diet. The observed associations between SES variables and diet-quality measures can be explained by a variety of potentially causal mechanisms. The disparity in energy costs ($/MJ) between energy-dense and nutrient-dense foods is one such mechanism; easy physical access to low-cost energy-dense foods is another. If higher SES is a causal determinant of diet quality, then the reported associations between diet quality and better health, found in so many epidemiologic studies, may have been confounded by unobserved indexes of social class. Conversely, if limited economic resources are causally linked to low-quality diets, some current strategies for health promotion, based on recommending high-cost foods to low-income people, may prove to be wholly ineffective. Exploring the possible causal relations between SES and diet quality is the purpose of this review.
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            Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

            Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries.
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              Socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors as determinants of premature mortality: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of 1·7 million men and women

              Summary Background In 2011, WHO member states signed up to the 25 × 25 initiative, a plan to cut mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 25% by 2025. However, socioeconomic factors influencing non-communicable diseases have not been included in the plan. In this study, we aimed to compare the contribution of socioeconomic status to mortality and years-of-life-lost with that of the 25 × 25 conventional risk factors. Methods We did a multicohort study and meta-analysis with individual-level data from 48 independent prospective cohort studies with information about socioeconomic status, indexed by occupational position, 25 × 25 risk factors (high alcohol intake, physical inactivity, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), and mortality, for a total population of 1 751 479 (54% women) from seven high-income WHO member countries. We estimated the association of socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality by calculating minimally adjusted and mutually adjusted hazard ratios [HR] and 95% CIs. We also estimated the population attributable fraction and the years of life lost due to suboptimal risk factors. Findings During 26·6 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 13·3 years [SD 6·4 years]), 310 277 participants died. HR for the 25 × 25 risk factors and mortality varied between 1·04 (95% CI 0·98–1·11) for obesity in men and 2 ·17 (2·06–2·29) for current smoking in men. Participants with low socioeconomic status had greater mortality compared with those with high socioeconomic status (HR 1·42, 95% CI 1·38–1·45 for men; 1·34, 1·28–1·39 for women); this association remained significant in mutually adjusted models that included the 25 × 25 factors (HR 1·26, 1·21–1·32, men and women combined). The population attributable fraction was highest for smoking, followed by physical inactivity then socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 2·1-year reduction in life expectancy between ages 40 and 85 years, the corresponding years-of-life-lost were 0·5 years for high alcohol intake, 0·7 years for obesity, 3·9 years for diabetes, 1·6 years for hypertension, 2·4 years for physical inactivity, and 4·8 years for current smoking. Interpretation Socioeconomic circumstances, in addition to the 25 × 25 factors, should be targeted by local and global health strategies and health risk surveillance to reduce mortality. Funding European Commission, Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Swiss National Science Foundation, the Medical Research Council, NordForsk, Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                csc
                Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
                Ciênc. saúde coletiva
                ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                1413-8123
                1678-4561
                2019
                : 24
                : 9
                : 3193-3212
                Affiliations
                Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Alimentos, Nutrição e Saúde Brazil raquel.canuto@ 123456ufrgs.br
                Recife Pernambuco orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição Brazil
                Santa Maria Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia Brazil
                Article
                S1413-81232019000903193
                10.1590/1413-81232018249.26202017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 20
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