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      How could multimedia information about dental implant surgery effects patients’ anxiety level?

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          To evaluate the effects of different patient education techniques on patients’ anxiety levels before and after dental implant surgery.

          Material and Methods

          Sixty patients were randomized into three groups; each contained 20 patients; [group 1, basic information given verbally, with details of operation and recovery; group 2 (study group), basic information given verbally with details of operative procedures and recovery, and by watching a movie on single implant surgery]; and a control group [basic information given verbally “but it was devoid of the details of the operative procedures and recovery”]. Anxiety levels were assessed using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS).


          The most significant changes were observed in the movie group ( P < 0.05). Patients who were more anxious also used more analgesic medication. Linear regression analysis showed that female patients had higher levels of anxiety ( P < 0.05).


          Preoperative multimedia information increases anxiety level.

          Key words:Implant, anxiety, pain, dental, video and patient knowledge.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Validation of the State-Trait Distinction in Anxiety Research.

          High school and university students were given Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children, an intelligence test, and the A-State and A-Trait Scales of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The STAI A-Stake Scale was administered under one non-stress and two stress conditions to both groups of subjects. A factor analysis of the data for the high school students identified six factors: trait anxiety; t h e e separate state anxiety factors, corresponding to each of the three administrations of the A-State Scale; a reversed-item factor; and an ability factor. A similar factor pattern emerged for the university students. The results were interpreted as providing evidence of the importance of situational stress in evoking anxiety states, and strong support for the slate-trait distinction in anxiety research.
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            Dental fear in adults: a meta-analysis of behavioral interventions.

            The aim of this meta-analytic and systematic quantitative approach is to examine the effects of behavioral interventions for dental anxiety and dental phobia. Eighty studies were identified where dental fear treatment with behavioral methods was evaluated. Thirty-eight of 80 met entry criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. The calculated effect sizes (ESs) for self-reported anxiety after intervention indicate positive changes in 36 of the 38 studies and no changes in two. The overall ES = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.6, 1.8). The percent of subjects with post-treatment dental visits in the first 6 months post-treatment varied between 50 and 100%. The overall ES for attendance at dental visits, weighted by sample size, is 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6). The homogeneity analysis indicates that the studies cannot be adequately described in one ES. The reported percentage of subjects with a dental visit between 6 months and 4 years post-treatment varied from 48 to 100%. The overall weighted ES for visiting the dentist, adjusted for drop-outs in the studies, is 1.2 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.4). Despite extensive heterogeneity, changes in self-reported anxiety represent medium to large ESs. Patients signing up for a behavioral intervention for dental fear can be expected to report a significant reduction in their fear, and this effect generally seems to be lasting. Mean long-term attendance ( >4 years after treatment) is 77%.
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              Anxiety and pain measures in dentistry: a guide to their quality and application.

              The authors review measures of anxiety and pain used in recent dental studies. In particular, the study identifies the reliability, validity and usefulness of the measures. Three computerized databases of published scientific literature were searched over a 10-year period. Only studies that included measures of anxiety or pain were included. Information on the reliability and validity of 15 measures of dental care anxiety and three measures of pain and pain-related behaviors is provided. Reliability and validity data for most measures are good. Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale is the most widely used measure of anxiety, although it may not be as sensitive as other measures. The McGill Pain Questionnaire is the measure of choice for the assessment of pain. The authors have summarized properties of the scales for clinicians and researchers planning to use measures of anxiety, measures of pain, or both.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]DDS, PhD. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey
                [2 ]Private Practices, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Dentistry Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 34093, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey , E-mail: dt_oguz@

                Conflict of interest statement: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exist.

                Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
                Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
                Medicina Oral S.L.
                Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
                Medicina Oral S.L.
                January 2017
                6 December 2016
                : 22
                : 1
                : e102-e107
                Copyright: © 2017 Medicina Oral S.L.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Oral Surgery



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