Municipal wastewater includes human waste that contains both commensal and pathogenic enteric microorganisms, and this collective community microbiome can be monitored for community diseases. In a previous study, we assessed the salmonellosis disease burden using municipal wastewater from Honolulu, Hawaii, which was monitored over a 54-week period. During that time, a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) (also known as Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B variant Java) was identified; this strain was detected simultaneously with a clinically reported outbreak, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identical for clinical and municipal wastewater isolates. Months after the outbreak subsided, the same pulsotype was detected as the dominant pulsotype in municipal wastewater samples, with no corresponding clinical cases reported. Using genomic characterization (including core single-nucleotide polymorphism alignment, core genome multilocus sequence typing, and screening for virulence and antibiotic resistance genes), all S . Java municipal wastewater isolates were determined to be clonal, indicating a resurgence of the original outbreak strain. This demonstrates the feasibility and utility of municipal wastewater surveillance for determining enteric disease outbreaks that may be missed by traditional clinical surveillance methods. IMPORTANCE Underdetection of microbial infectious disease outbreaks in human communities carries enormous health costs and is an ongoing problem in public health monitoring (which relies almost exclusively on data from health clinics). Surveillance of municipal wastewater for community-level monitoring of infectious disease burdens has the potential to fill this information gap, due to its easy access to the mixed community microbiome. In the present study, the genomes of 21 S . Java isolates (collected from municipal wastewater in Honolulu) were analyzed; results showed that the same Salmonella strain that caused a known salmonellosis clinical outbreak in spring 2010 remerged as the most dominant strain in municipal wastewater in spring 2011, indicating a new outbreak that was not detected by health clinics. Our results show that wastewater monitoring holds great promise to inform the field of public health regarding outbreak status within communities.