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      Pedogenetic processes in anthrosols with pretic horizon (Amazonian Dark Earth) in Central Amazon, Brazil

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          Abstract

          Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon. Physical, chemical, micromorphological and SEM-EDS analyses were performed. The coarse material of the pretic horizons consisted predominantly of quartz, iron nodules, ceramics and charcoal fragments, and the fine material is organo-mineral. There was a direct relationship between the color of pretic horizons and the number of charcoal fragments. The thickness of the ADE results from the redistribution of charcoal at depth through bioturbation, transforming subsurface horizons into anthropic horizons. ADE presents granular microaggregates of geochemical and zoogenetic origin. Degradation of iron nodules is intensified in pretic horizons, promoting a reverse pedogenic process contributing to the xanthization process. Surprisingly the anthropic activities also favor clay dispersion and argilluviation; clay coatings on the ceramic fragments and in the pores demonstrate that this is a current process. Processes identified as contributing to ADE genesis included: i) addition of organic residues and ceramic artifacts (cumulization) with the use of fire; ii) mechanical action of humans, roots and macrofauna (bioturbation); iii) melanization of deeper horizons as a result of bioturbation; iv) argilluviation and degradation of iron nodules. This study offers new support to archaeological research in respect to ADE formation processes in Central Amazon and confirmed the hypothesis that ancient anthropic activities may trigger and/or accelerate pedogenetic processes previously credited only to natural causes.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Pedogenesis and pre-Colombian land use of “Terra Preta Anthrosols” (“Indian black earth”) of Western Amazonia

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            Dark earths and the human built landscape in Amazonia: a widespread pattern of anthrosol formation

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              Thin Section Preparation of Soils and Sediments

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                23 May 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Soil Science Department, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [3 ]Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil
                [4 ]Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
                RMIT University, AUSTRALIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare.

                • Conceptualization: PVT RSM WT.

                • Data curation: RSM.

                • Formal analysis: RSM PVT MMC.

                • Funding acquisition: PVT RSM.

                • Investigation: RSM PVT GM.

                • Project administration: PVT.

                • Resources: PVT.

                • Supervision: PVT.

                • Validation: RSM.

                • Visualization: RSM PVT.

                • Writing – original draft: RSM PVT WT.

                • Writing – review & editing: RSM PVT WT.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-50804
                10.1371/journal.pone.0178038
                5441626
                28542442
                © 2017 Macedo et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 6, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001807, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo;
                Award ID: 2012/06064-8
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001807, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo;
                Award ID: 2010/51934-5
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 304741/2013-2
                Award Recipient :
                This work was funded by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)/Brazil and CAPES, by granting PhD scholarships within the country (FAPESP 2010/51934-5) and abroad (FAPESP 2012/06064-8). EMBRAPA is a government research institution ( https://www.embrapa.br/en/home) which provided financial support in the form of authors’ salaries and/or research materials to authors WGT and GCM. CNPq provided a research grant of PVT (304741/2013-2). The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Attribute
                Coatings
                Engineering and Technology
                Manufacturing Processes
                Surface Treatments
                Coatings
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Ceramics
                Earth Sciences
                Mineralogy
                Minerals
                Quartz
                Earth Sciences
                Mineralogy
                Minerals
                Magnetite
                Social Sciences
                Archaeology
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials Physics
                Microstructure
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Materials Physics
                Microstructure
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Oils
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agricultural Soil Science
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Soil Science
                Agricultural Soil Science
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper.

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