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      Elements of time and place: manganese and barium in shark vertebrae reflect age and upwelling histories

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          Abstract

          As upper-level predators, sharks are important for maintaining marine food web structure, but populations are threatened by fishery exploitation. Sustainable management of shark populations requires improved understanding of migration patterns and population demographics, which has traditionally been sought through physical and/or electronic tagging studies. The application of natural tags such as elemental variations in mineralized band pairs of elasmobranch vertebrae cartilage could also reveal endogenous and exogenous processes experienced by sharks throughout their life histories. Here, elemental profiles were characterized in vertebrae encompassing complete life histories (birth-to-death) of shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus) and blue shark ( Prionace glauca) of known tag and recapture locations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. All sharks were injected with oxytetracycline at initial capture, released and subsequently recaptured, with individual liberty times ranging from 215 days to 6 years. Vertebral band pairs forming over the liberty intervals were verified by counting the number of band pairs deposited since the oxytetracycline band. Regular oscillations in vertebrae manganese (Mn) content corresponded well with the number of validated band pairs, suggesting that Mn variation could be used to age sharks. Increases in vertebrae barium concentration were correlated with times when individuals occupied areas with high coastal upwelling indices, the timing and spatial intensity of which varied from year to year. Interspecific relationships were probably influenced by behavioural differences in horizontal and vertical habitat use, feeding habits and thermoregulatory physiology. These results indicate that vertebral sclerochronology has the potential to advance our knowledge of elasmobranch life history including age and growth estimation and environmental reconstruction.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Coastal upwelling in the California current system

           Adriana Huyer (1983)
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            Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks

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              Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in depth and course

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proc Biol Sci
                Proc. Biol. Sci
                RSPB
                royprsb
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                7 November 2018
                7 November 2018
                7 November 2018
                : 285
                : 1890
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University at Galveston , 1001 Texas Clipper Road, Galveston, TX 77553, USA
                [2 ]Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin , 2275 Speedway Stop C9000, Austin, TX 78712, USA
                [3 ]Departamento de Oceanografía Biológica, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE) , 3918 Carretera Tijuana –Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860, Mexico
                [4 ]Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service , 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [5 ]Ocean Associates, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service , 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [6 ]Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX 77843, USA
                Author notes

                Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4280105.

                Article
                rspb20181760
                10.1098/rspb.2018.1760
                6235039
                30404878
                © 2018 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Texas A&M University CONACYT Collaborative Research Grant Program;
                Award ID: Project 2016-026
                Categories
                1001
                60
                15
                Ecology
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                November 7, 2018

                Life sciences

                upwelling, age, manganese, barium, vertebral chemistry, shark

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