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      Ninjin’yoeito Ameliorates Skeletal Muscle Complications in COPD Model Mice by Upregulating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α Expression

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          Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, is a common systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is correlated with higher mortality. Ninjin’yoeito (NYT) is a Japanese herbal medicine used to treat athrepsia and anorexia and is reported to ameliorate weight loss and muscular dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that its crude components upregulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)-related pathway, which is involved in skeletal muscle functions. Here, we examined whether NYT improves skeletal muscle complications by upregulating PGC-1α in COPD model mice.

          Materials and Methods

          Mice were divided into four groups: control, NYT, smoking, and smoking + NYT. The smoking and smoking + NYT groups were exposed to cigarette smoke for 60 min once daily. The mice in the NYT and smoking + NYT groups were fed an NYT-containing diet (3% w/w). We performed cellular analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, assessed pulmonary morphological changes, examined the expression of PGC-1α mRNA and protein in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle, measured the hindlimb muscle volume with micro-computed tomography, and determined the myofiber proportion in soleus muscle after 12 weeks.


          Cigarette smoke exposure resulted in reduced skeletal muscle volume and slow-twitch muscle fibers and development of pulmonary emphysema. NYT feeding induced partial recovery of the damaged alveolar wall; however, NYT did not ameliorate smoke-induced alveolar enlargement. These findings revealed that NYT did not have sufficient efficacy in suppressing pulmonary emphysema. On the other hand, PGC-1α expression in muscle tissue of the NYT-fed mice increased significantly, resulting in suppression of smoke-induced loss of muscle mass and alteration in the muscle fiber distribution.


          NYT increases PGC-1α expression in the muscle of COPD model mice and is involved in suppressing cigarette smoke-induced muscle complications. NYT may be a novel preventive and therapeutic medication for muscular dysfunctions in COPD.

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          Most cited references 64

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          An official American Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Although cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a substantial proportion of COPD cases cannot be explained by smoking alone. To evaluate the risk factors for COPD besides personal cigarette smoking. We constituted an ad hoc subcommittee of the American Thoracic Society Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly. An international group of members was invited, based on their scientific expertise in a specific risk factor for COPD. For each risk factor area, the committee reviewed the literature, summarized the evidence, and developed conclusions about the likelihood of it causing COPD. All conclusions were based on unanimous consensus. The population-attributable fraction for smoking as a cause of COPD ranged from 9.7 to 97.9%, but was less than 80% in most studies, indicating a substantial burden of disease attributable to nonsmoking risk factors. On the basis of our review, we concluded that specific genetic syndromes and occupational exposures were causally related to the development of COPD. Traffic and other outdoor pollution, secondhand smoke, biomass smoke, and dietary factors are associated with COPD, but sufficient criteria for causation were not met. Chronic asthma and tuberculosis are associated with irreversible loss of lung function, but there remains uncertainty about whether there are important phenotypic differences compared with COPD as it is typically encountered in clinical settings. In public health terms, a substantive burden of COPD is attributable to risk factors other than smoking. To prevent COPD-related disability and mortality, efforts must focus on prevention and cessation of exposure to smoking and these other, less well-recognized risk factors.
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            Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

            Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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              The pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune response to the inhalation of toxic particles and gases. Although tobacco smoking is the primary cause of this inhalation injury, many other environmental and occupational exposures contribute to the pathology of COPD. The immune inflammatory changes associated with COPD are linked to a tissue-repair and -remodeling process that increases mucus production and causes emphysematous destruction of the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. The common form of emphysema observed in smokers begins in the respiratory bronchioles near the thickened and narrowed small bronchioles that become the major site of obstruction in COPD. The mechanism(s) that allow small airways to thicken in such close proximity to lung tissue undergoing emphysematous destruction remains a puzzle that needs to be solved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                27 November 2020
                : 15
                : 3063-3077
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University , Osaka-City, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kazuhisa Asai Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University , 1-4-3 Asahi-Machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka-City, Osaka545-8585, JapanTel +81-6-6645-3916Fax +81-6-6646-6160 Email
                © 2020 Miyamoto et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 64, Pages: 15
                Funded by: JSPS KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research [C]);
                This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research [C]) Grant Number 19K08660 to K. A.
                Original Research


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