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      Acute Kidney Injury Relevant to Tubulointerstitial Nephritis with Late-Onset Uveitis Superimposed by Thrombotic Microangiopathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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          Abstract

          Background: The syndrome of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) is an uncommon and multisystemic autoimmune disorder. This review reports a rare case of TINU being superimposed on thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and, by comparing with the available literature, also summarizes the clinical features, associated conditions, treatment, and outcome of patients with TINU. Summary: Herein, we report the case of a 37-year-old male patient with acute kidney injury (AKI) clinicopathologically identified as malignant hypertension-induced TMA superimposed by acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, which was suspected to be related to drug hypersensitivity. After treatment with oral prednisone combined with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, the patient achieved partial renal recovery and was withdrawn from hemodialysis. Recurrent AKI concomitant with new-onset asymptomatic uveitis was detected during routine clinical follow-up after cessation of prednisone. TINU was then diagnosed, and prednisone followed by cyclophosphamide was prescribed. The patient achieved better renal recovery than in the first round of treatment and maintained stable renal function afterward. By reviewing the literature, 36 cases were reported as TINU superimposed on other conditions, including thyroiditis, osteoarthropathy, and sarcoid-like noncaseating granulomas. Key messages: TINU could be complicated by many other conditions, among which TMA is very rare. When presented as AKI, kidney biopsy is important for differential diagnosis. The case also shows that recurrent AKI with concomitant uveitis after prednisone withdrawal strongly suggested the need for long-term follow-up and elongated prednisone therapy for TINU syndrome.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Etiologies and outcome of acute renal insufficiency in older adults: a renal biopsy study of 259 cases.

           E Wit,  B H Spargo,  C Haas (2000)
          Acute renal insufficiency is a common problem, yet one that is frequently reversible with proper diagnosis and treatment. Although it has been argued that a renal biopsy is not needed for diagnosis in most cases of acute renal failure in the elderly, other studies have shown frequent disagreements between clinical and renal biopsy diagnoses in such cases. To investigate the causes of acute renal insufficiency in patients aged at least 60 years who underwent a renal biopsy and possible correlations between biopsy findings and renal survival, we first identified all native renal biopsy specimens from patients aged 60 years or older processed at The University of Chicago Medical Center (Chicago, IL) from 1991 through 1998 and reviewed the clinical records to determine the indication for the biopsy. We then reviewed again the records of those patients who underwent biopsy because of acute renal insufficiency, recorded the primary renal biopsy diagnosis in each of these cases, and obtained follow-up information for patients who underwent biopsy before July 1996. During the study period, 1,065 of 4,264 biopsy specimens (25.0%) received were obtained from patients aged 60 years or older, and acute renal insufficiency was the indication for biopsy in 259 of these patients (24.3%). The most frequent primary diagnoses on these latter biopsy specimens were pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) with or without arteritis, 31.2% of biopsy specimens; acute interstitial nephritis, 18.6%; acute tubular necrosis (ATN) with nephrotic syndrome, 7.5%; atheroemboli, 7.1%; ATN alone, 6.7%; light chain cast nephropathy (LCCN), 5.9%; postinfectious GN, 5.5%; anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody nephritis, 4.0%; and immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy and/or Henoch-Schönlein nephritis, 3.6%. Eight biopsy specimens (3.2%) showed only benign nephrosclerosis without an apparent cause of acute renal insufficiency, and another six specimens were inadequate. The renal biopsy diagnosis was in agreement with the prebiopsy clinical diagnosis (or differential diagnosis) in 107 of the 161 cases (67%) in which such information was provided. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in patients in the age groups of 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 years or older, although younger age correlated significantly with improved renal and patient survival. The relative risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) also increased according to diagnostic categories: LCCN (greatest risk) > GN other than pauci-immune > atheroemboli congruent with pauci-immune crescentic GN > tubulointerstitial diseases other than LCCN (the latter category including ATN with nephrotic syndrome). Development of ESRD correlated significantly with decreased patient survival. In summary, renal biopsy in patients aged 60 years or older with acute renal insufficiency uncovered the cause in greater than 90% of the cases and provided clinically useful information with respect to expectation for renal survival and potential treatment options.
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            Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

            Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare histologic diagnosis. This series reports the presenting features, associated conditions, treatment, and outcome of patients with a diagnosis of GIN in Glasgow during a 15-yr period and compares this with the available literature. Eighteen cases were identified: Five cases were associated with sarcoidosis, two were associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis, two were associated with medication, and nine were idiopathic. Patients presented with advanced renal failure (median estimated creatinine clearance 21 ml/min) and minimal proteinuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 9.9 mg/mmol). Sixteen patients were treated with prednisolone for a mean of 25 mo. Six patients relapsed with reduction in prednisolone dosage, and four patients required steroid-sparing agents. During the mean follow-up of 45 mo, renal function improved or stabilized in 17 patients; the rate of improvement in renal function was most marked in the first year after diagnosis with a gain in function of +1.9 ml/min per mo. The median estimated creatinine clearance at final visit was 56 ml/min. One patient required renal replacement therapy at diagnosis but recovered renal function with treatment. No patient required long-term renal replacement therapy. There was no correlation between the degree of fibrosis or inflammation on biopsy and renal outcome, and the features on biopsy did not help to determine the cause of GIN. GIN is a treatable cause of renal failure that highlights the value of renal biopsy in patients who present with renal failure even when there is minimal proteinuria. The rarity of GIN demonstrates the need for systematic data collection.
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              Acute eosinophilic interstitial nephritis and renal failure with bone marrow-lymph node granulomas and anterior uveitis. A new syndrome.

              We describe two patients with a unique granulomatous syndrome who presented with renal failure secondary to diffuse eosinophilic interstitial nephritis. Both had bilateral anterior uveitis, bone marrow granulomas, hypergammaglobulinemia and an increased sedimentation rate. One patient had lymph node granulomas and an immunoglobulin G (IgG) rheumatoid factor. An extensive investigation for an etiologic agent was unrewarding, and neither patient could be placed into any existing diagnostic category. Over a period of 2 years both patients have experienced improved renal function and dissolution of their bone marrow granulomas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KDD
                KDD
                10.1159/issn.2296-9357
                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9381
                2296-9357
                2020
                November 2020
                20 May 2020
                : 6
                : 6
                : 414-421
                Affiliations
                aRenal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China
                bRenal Pathology Center, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China
                cKey Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, China
                dKey Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China
                eDepartment of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China
                fLaboratory of Electron Microscopy, Pathological Centre, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                *Dr. Li Yang, Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Institute of Nephrology, Peking University, Peking University First Hospital, Xishiku Street No. 8, Beijing 100034 (China), li.yang@bjmu.edu.cn
                Article
                507668 Kidney Dis 2020;6:414–421
                10.1159/000507668
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Review Article

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