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      Regulation of keratin expression by retinoids

      Dermato-Endocrinology

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 71

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          NF-kappaB regulation in the immune system.

          The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/REL family of transcription factors has a central role in coordinating the expression of a wide variety of genes that control immune responses. There has been intense scientific activity in the NF-kappaB field owing to the involvement of these factors in the activation and regulation of key molecules that are associated with diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of NF-kappaB regulation and its role in the immune system and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss the role of NF-kappaB proteins as potential therapeutic targets in clinical applications.
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            Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.

            Over the last quarter century, more than 532 genes have been put forward as regulatory targets of retinoic acid. In some cases this control is direct, driven by a liganded heterodimer of retinoid receptors bound to a DNA response element; in others, it is indirect, reflecting the actions of intermediate transcription factors, non-classical associations of receptors with other proteins, or even more distant mechanisms. Given the broad range of scientific questions continually under investigation, researchers do not always have occasion to classify target genes along these lines. However, our understanding of the genetic role of retinoids will be enhanced if such a distinction can be made for each regulated gene. We have therefore evaluated published data from 1,191 papers covering 532 genes and have classified these genes into four categories according to the degree to which an hypothesis of direct versus indirect control is supported overall. We found 27 genes that are unquestionably direct targets of the classical pathway in permissive cellular contexts (Category 3 genes), plus 105 genes that appear to be candidates, pending the results of specific additional experiments (Category 2). Data on another 267 targets are not evocative of direct or indirect regulation either way, although control by retinoic acid through some mechanism is clear (Category 1). Most of the remaining 133 targets seem to be regulated indirectly, usually through a transcriptional intermediary, in the contexts studied so far (Category 0).
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              Function and regulation of AP-1 subunits in skin physiology and pathology.

              The mouse skin has become the model of choice to study the regulation and function of AP-1 subunits in many physiological and pathological processes in vivo and in vitro. Genetically modified mice, in vitro reconstituted skin equivalents and epidermal cell lines were established, in which AP-1-regulated genetic programs of cell proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis can be analysed. Since the epidermis, as our interface with the environment, is subjected to radiation and injury, signal transduction pathways and critical AP-1 members regulating the mammalian stress response could be identified. Regulated expression of important components of the cytokine network, cell surface receptors and proteases, which orchestrate the process of wound healing has been found to rely on AP-1 activity. Here we review our current knowledge on the function of AP-1 subunits and AP-1 target genes in these fascinating fields of skin physiology and pathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Informa UK Limited
                1938-1980
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                : 3
                : 3
                : 136-140
                Article
                10.4161/derm.15026
                © 2011

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