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      Regulation of keratin expression by retinoids

      Dermato-Endocrinology

      Informa UK Limited

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          Unique response pathways are established by allosteric interactions among nuclear hormone receptors.

          Heterodimerization is a common paradigm among eukaryotic transcription factors. The 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) serves as a common heterodimerization partner for several nuclear receptors, including the thyroid hormone receptor (T3R) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR). This raises the question as to whether these complexes possess dual hormonal responsiveness. We devised a strategy to examine the transcriptional properties of each receptor individually or when tethered to a heterodimeric partner. We find that the intrinsic binding properties of RXR are masked in T3R-RXR and RAR-RXR heterodimers. In contrast, RXR is active as a non-DNA-binding cofactor with the NGFI-B/Nurr1 orphan receptors. Heterodimerization of RXR with constitutively active NGFI-B/Nurr1 creates a novel hormone-dependent complex. These findings suggest that allosteric interactions among heterodimers create complexes with unique properties. We suggest that allostery is a critical feature underlying the generation of diversity in hormone response networks.
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            Regulation of terminal differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes by vitamin A.

            Vitamin A is known to exert an important influence on epithelial differentiation. The fetal calf serum supplement of cell-culture medium contains enough of the vitamin to affect the differentiation of cultured keratinocytes derived from epidermis and from other stratified squamous epithelia. The cellular and molecular properties of the cultures are altered when the medium is supplemented with serum from which the vitamin A has been removed by solvent extraction (delipidized serum). Cell motility is reduced, the adhesiveness of cells increases and pattern formation is prevented. In both epidermal and conjunctival keratinocytes, removal of vitamin A leads to the synthesis of a 67 kd keratin characteristic of terminally differentiating epidermis and to much reduced synthesis of the 52 kd and 40 kd keratins typical of conjunctiva. These changes, both cellular and molecular, are reversed by the addition of retinyl acetate to the medium containing delipidized serum. Cell motility and pattern formation are restored, and detachment of the most mature cells from the surface of the stratified epithelium is promoted. Synthesis of the 67 kd keratin is prevented and the synthesis of the 40 and 52 kd keratins is stimulated. The nature of the keratins synthesized is regulated by the concentration of vitamin A, and each cell type adjusts its synthesis differently at a given vitamin concentration.
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              Interactions controlling the assembly of nuclear-receptor heterodimers and co-activators.

              Retinoic-acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) are members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily that bind to DNA as heterodimers with retinoid-X receptors (RXRs). PPAR-RXR heterodimers can be activated by PPAR or RXR ligands, whereas RAR-RXR heterodimers are selectively activated by RAR ligands only, because of allosteric inhibition of the binding of ligands to RXR by RAR. However, RXR ligands can potentiate the transcriptional effects of RAR ligands in cells. Transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors requires a carboxy-terminal helical region, termed activation function-2 (AF-2), that forms part of the ligand-binding pocket and undergoes a conformational change required for the recruitment of co-activator proteins, including NCoA-1/SRC-1. Here we show that allosteric inhibition of RXR results from a rotation of the RXR AF-2 helix that places it in contact with the RAR coactivator-binding site. Recruitment of an LXXLL motif of SRC-1 to RAR in response to ligand displaces the RXR AF-2 domain, allowing RXR ligands to bind and promote the binding of a second LXXLL motif from the same SRC-1 molecule. These results may partly explain the different responses of nuclear-receptor heterodimers to RXR-specific ligands.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Informa UK Limited
                1938-1980
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                : 3
                : 3
                : 136-140
                Article
                10.4161/derm.15026
                079e0973-44eb-4342-aeaa-e4ea44e11454
                © 2011

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