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      Outcome of Autogenous Fistula Construction in Hemodialyzed Patients Over 75 Years of Age

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          Abstract

          Background: There are controversies regarding the feasibility of autogenous vascular access creation in elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of creating different types of autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in a consecutive series of HD patients over 75 years of age. Methods: The analysis was performed in 131 patients (65 females, 66 males, average age 79.1 ± 3.6 years) in whom the creation of an autogenous AVF was considered within a 6-year period (February 1998 to February 2004). Among them, 26.7%were diabetics, 66.3% had hypertension, 30.7% were smokers, and 35.6% were obese. Patient survival and primary and secondary AVF patency were assessed. Results: The survival rates for patients were 94, 88, 66, and 45% at 6 months and at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Successful autogenous AVF formation was finally achieved in 107 patients (81.6%): in 99 patients in the forearm and in 8in the upper arm. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed primary AVF patency rates of: 74 ± 4.3% (± SE) at 1 month; 70 ± 4.7% at 6 months; 59 ± 4.9% at 1 year; 59 ± 4.9% at 2 years; 59± 4.9% at 3 years; 59 ± 4.9% at 4 years, and 58 ± 4.9% at 5 years. The secondary patency rates were: 95 ± 2.0; 92 ± 2.2; 84 ± 3.3; 79 ± 4.0; 72 ± 4.3; 71 ± 4.4, and 69 ± 4.5% in the corresponding periods, respectively. All postoperative complications in 10 patients were treated surgically, if applicable, without endovascular techniques. Conclusions: By exploiting all suitable types of autogenous AVF it is possible to establish the best form of vascular access even in the majority of elderly patients.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Type of vascular access and mortality in U.S. hemodialysis patients.

          Vascular access (VA) complications account for 16 to 25% of hospital admissions. This study tested the hypothesis that the type of VA in use is correlated with overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. Data were analyzed from the U.S. Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1, a random sample of 5507 patients, prevalent on hemodialysis as of December 31, 1993. The relative mortality risk during a two-year observation was analyzed by Cox-regression methods with adjustments for demographic and comorbid conditions. Using similar methods, cause-specific analyses also were performed for death caused by infection and cardiac causes. In diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with end-stage renal disease, the associated relative mortality risk was higher for those with arteriovenous graft (AVG; RR = 1.41, P < 0.003) and central venous catheter (CVC; RR = 1.54, P < 0.002) as compared with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). In non-DM patients, those with CVC had a higher associated mortality (RR = 1.70, P < 0.001), as did to a lesser degree those with AVG (RR = 1.08, P = 0.35) when compared with AVF. Cause-specific analyses found higher infection-related deaths for CVC (RR = 2.30, P < 0.06) and AVG (RR = 2.47, P < 0.02) compared with AVF in DM; in non-DM, risk was higher also for CVC (RR = 1.83, P < 0.04) and AVG (RR = 1.27, P < 0.33). In contrast to our hypothesis that AV shunting increases cardiac risk, deaths caused by cardiac causes were higher in CVC than AVF for both DM (RR = 1.47, P < 0.05) and non-DM (RR = 1.34, P < 0.05) patients. This case-mix adjusted analysis suggests that CVC and AVG are correlated with increased mortality risk when compared with AVF, both overall and by major causes of death.
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            Vascular access and all-cause mortality: a propensity score analysis.

            The native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access because of its longevity and its lower rates of infection and intervention. Recent studies suggest that the AVF may offer a survival advantage. Because these data were derived from observational studies, they are prone to potential bias. The use of propensity scores offers an additional method to reduce bias resulting from nonrandomized treatment assignment. Adult (age 18 yr or more) patients who commenced hemodialysis in Australia and New Zealand on April 1, 1999, until March 31, 2002, were studied by using the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Association (ANZDATA) Registry. Cox regression was used to determine the effect of access type on total mortality. Propensity scores were calculated and used both as a controlling variable in the multivariable model and to construct matched cohorts. The catheter analysis was stratified by dialysis duration at entry to ANZDATA to satisfy the proportional-hazard assumption. There were 612 deaths in 3749 patients (median follow-up, 1.07 yr). After adjustment for confounding factors and propensity scores, catheter use was predictive of mortality. Patients with arteriovenous grafts (AVG) also had a significantly increased risk of death. Effect estimates were also consistent in the smaller propensity score-matched cohorts. Both AVG and catheter use in incident hemodialysis patients are associated with significant excess of total mortality. Reducing catheter use and increasing the proportion of patients commencing hemodialysis with a mature AVF remain important clinical objectives.
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              Recommended standards for reports dealing with arteriovenous hemodialysis accesses.

              The incidence rate of treated end-stage renal disease in the united states is 180 per million and continues to rise at a rate of 7.8% per year. Arteriovenous hemodialysis access (AV access) creation and maintenance are two of the most difficult issues associated with the management of patients on hemodialysis. The 1-year complication rate of a primary prosthetic AV access for hemodialysis ranges from 33% to 99%. Various investigators report on patency and complications of AV access. However, it is rather difficult to compare outcomes because of the wide variety of access materials, configurations, locations, risk factors, and quality of inflow and outflow vessels. Although there have been reporting standards for dialysis access endovascular interventions and for central venous access placement, standards regarding surgical access placement and its revision are lacking. The "Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative," published by the National Kidney Foundation, provides recommendations for optimal clinical practices aimed at improving dialysis outcome and patient survival. This reporting standards document is not meant to be a "practice guidelines" or "best practices" document. Rather, the purpose of this document is to provide standardized definitions related to AV access procedures and to recommend reporting standards for patency and complications, to be used by surgeons, nephrologists, and interventional radiologists, that will permit meaningful comparisons among AV access procedures. The terms, definitions, and categories featured in this article have been approved by the Committee on Reporting Standards of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Association for Vascular Surgery and should be observed in preparing manuscripts on AV accesses for submission to the Journal Of Vascular Surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                February 2006
                15 February 2006
                : 24
                : 2
                : 190-195
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine, Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
                Article
                90518 Blood Purif 2006;24:190–195
                10.1159/000090518
                16373997
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 17, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90518
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