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      Perception and experiences of sexual harassment among women working in hospitality workplaces of Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Workplace sexual harassment is a public health problem that depends on gender, context, and perceived ideology. Although studies have documented the prevalence and consequences of workplace sexual harassment worldwide, victims’ perceptions and experiences are still poorly understood in low and middle-income countries, particularly Ethiopia. Female workers in the hospitality industry, including hotels, bars, restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and cafeterias, are particularly affected. Hence, this study aimed to explore sexual harassment perceptions and experiences among women working in these workplaces.

          Methods

          An exploratory qualitative study was conducted from 1 January to 30 August 2019. Data were collected from female employees and key informants from several hospitality workplaces in Bahir Dar City. Data were collected through focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and key-informant interviews. Women who experienced sexual harassment were selected using the snowball method, and key informants were recruited purposefully. Six focus group discussions, ten in-depth interviews, and thirteen key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using the ATLAS ti version 8.4.24.

          Results

          In this study, most participants perceived that sexual harassment is pressuring, threatening, touching, abducting sexual advances, and experiencing verbal, physical, and non-verbal types. Similarly, the perceived risk factors were related to the organisations, the customers, and the victims, with the consequences being work-related, health-related, financial-related, and family-related.

          Conclusions

          Workplace sexual harassment in hospitality workplaces is poorly understood, but many women experience it. A variety of factors also caused it, and it influenced both organisations and people. Public awareness programs, pre-service preparation, in-service training, prevention, and psychosocial support are needed. Similarly, policies and strategies for the organisations should be developed and implemented.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12889-021-11173-1.

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          Using thematic analysis in psychology

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            Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis

            Abstract In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research.
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              Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                muliedile@gmail.com
                zbkoricha@yahoo.com
                gurmesatura@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                11 June 2021
                11 June 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 1119
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.510430.3, Department of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, , Debre Tabor University, ; Debre Tabor, Ethiopia
                [2 ]GRID grid.411903.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2034 9160, Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Faculty of Public Health, , Jimma University, ; Jimma, Ethiopia
                [3 ]GRID grid.411903.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2034 9160, Department of Population and Family Health, Faculty of Public Health, , Jimma University, ; Jimma, Ethiopia
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2540-9809
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6216-3804
                Article
                11173
                10.1186/s12889-021-11173-1
                8196489
                34116672
                07b47aa9-8601-4bd5-8003-173b45d5f7ac
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 22 January 2021
                : 1 June 2021
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Public health
                transactional sex,factors,effects,hospitality,ethiopia
                Public health
                transactional sex, factors, effects, hospitality, ethiopia

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