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      Polymer Bioprocessing to Fabricate 3D Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering


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          Traditional methods for polymer processing involve the use of hazardous organic solvents which may compromise the biological function of scaffolds in tissue engineering. Indeed, the toxic effect of them on biological microenvironment has a tremendous impact on cell fate so altering the main activities involved in in vitro tissue formation. To date, extensive researches focus on seeking newer methods for bio-safely processing polymeric biomaterials to be implanted in the human body. Here, we aim at over viewing two approaches based on solvent free or green solvent based processes in order to identify alternative solutions to fabricate bio-inspired scaffolds to be successfully used in regenerative and degenerative medicine.

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          Most cited references80

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          Biomimetic materials for tissue engineering.

          Peter Ma (2008)
          Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an exciting research area that aims at regenerative alternatives to harvested tissues for transplantation. Biomaterials play a pivotal role as scaffolds to provide three-dimensional templates and synthetic extracellular matrix environments for tissue regeneration. It is often beneficial for the scaffolds to mimic certain advantageous characteristics of the natural extracellular matrix, or developmental or wound healing programs. This article reviews current biomimetic materials approaches in tissue engineering. These include synthesis to achieve certain compositions or properties similar to those of the extracellular matrix, novel processing technologies to achieve structural features mimicking the extracellular matrix on various levels, approaches to emulate cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and biologic delivery strategies to recapitulate a signaling cascade or developmental/wound healing program. The article also provides examples of enhanced cellular/tissue functions and regenerative outcomes, demonstrating the excitement and significance of the biomimetic materials for tissue engineering and regeneration.
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            Synthetic nano-scale fibrous extracellular matrix.

            Biodegradable polymers have been widely used as scaffolding materials to regenerate new tissues. To mimic natural extracellular matrix architecture, a novel highly porous structure, which is a three-dimensional interconnected fibrous network with a fiber diameter ranging from 50 to 500 nm, has been created from biodegradable aliphatic polyesters in this work. A porosity as high as 98.5% has been achieved. These nano-fibrous matrices were prepared from the polymer solutions by a procedure involving thermally induced gelation, solvent exchange, and freeze-drying. The effects of polymer concentration, thermal annealing, solvent exchange, and freezing temperature before freeze-drying on the nano-scale structures were studied. In general, at a high gelation temperature, a platelet-like structure was formed. At a low gelation temperature, the nano-fibrous structure was formed. Under the conditions for nano-fibrous matrix formation, the average fiber diameter (160-170 nm) did not change statistically with polymer concentration or gelation temperature. The porosity decreased with polymer concentration. The mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) increased with polymer concentration. A surface-to-volume ratio of the nano-fibrous matrices was two to three orders of magnitude higher than those of fibrous nonwoven fabrics fabricated with the textile technology or foams fabricated with a particulate-leaching technique. This synthetic analogue of natural extracellular matrix combined the advantages of synthetic biodegradable polymers and the nano-scale architecture of extracellular matrix, and may provide a better environment for cell attachment and function.
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              Design, fabrication and characterization of PCL electrospun scaffolds—a review


                Author and article information

                International Polymer Processing
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                18 November 2016
                : 31
                : 5
                : 587-597
                1 Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy, Naples, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence address, Mail address: Vincenzo Guarino, Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy, Mostra d'Oltremare, Pad. 20, V.le Kennedy 54, 80125 Naples, Italy. E-mail: vincenzo.guarino@ 123456cnr.it
                © 2016, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich
                Page count
                References: 89, Pages: 11
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/loi/ipp
                Special Issue Contributions

                Polymer science,Materials technology,Materials characterization,General engineering,Polymer chemistry


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