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      Thromboembolism as a Cause of Renal Artery Occlusion and Acute Kidney Injury: The Recovery of Kidney Function after Two Weeks

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          Abstract

          Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Epidemiology of acute renal failure: a prospective, multicenter, community-based study. Madrid Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

           J Pascual,  F Liaño (1996)
          There are very limited data on overall epidemiology of ARF. It is crucial to know the incidence, etiology and clinical feature of ARF to promote prevention strategies and to implement adequate resources for the management of this entity. During a nine month period, a collaborative prospective protocol with 98 variables was developed to assess all ARF episodes encountered in the 13 tertiary-care hospitals in Madrid, Spain (covering 4.2 million people of over 14 years of age). ARF was considered when a sudden rise in serum creatinine concentration (SCr) to more than 177 mumol/liter was found in patients with normal renal function, or when the sudden rise (50% or more) was observed in patients with previous mild-to-moderate chronic renal failure (SCr < 264 mumol/liter). Of the 748 cases of ARF studied, 665 episodes presented in inhabitants from the Madrid area. This gives an overall incidence of ARF of 209 cases per million population (p.m.p.; 95% CJ 195 to 223). The incidence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was 88 cases p.m.p. (95% CI 79 to 97), prerenal ARF 46 p.m.p (95% CI 40 to 52), acute-onset chronic ARF 29 p.m.p. (95% CI 24 to 34), and obstructive ARF 23 p.m.p. (95% CI 19 to 27). The mean age was 63 +/- 17 years. The most frequent causes of ARF were ATN (45%), prerenal (21%), acute-onset chronic renal failure (12.7%) and obstructive ARF (10%). Renal function was normal at admission in 48% of patients who later developed ARF. Mortality (45%) was much higher than that of the other patients admitted (5.4%, P < 0.001). This real outcome correlated extremely well with the expected outcome calculated through out the severity index of ARF (SI) 0.433 +/- 0.246 (mean +/- SD). In 187 cases, mortality was attributed to underlying disease, thus corrected mortality due to ARF was 26.7%. Dialysis was required in 36% of patients, and was associated with a significantly higher SI of ARF (0.57 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.19, P < 0.001) and mortality (65.9 vs. 33.2%, P < 0.001). Mortality in patients hemodialyzed with biocompatible synthetic membranes (N = 50) was similar to that observed with cellulosic ones (N = 84; 66% vs. 59.5%, NS). Mortality was higher in patients with coma, assisted respiration, hypotension, jaundice (all P < 0.001) and oliguria (P < 0.02). This study gives, for the first time, the incidence of all forms of ARF in a developed country. ARF is iatrogenically induced at a high rate by modern medicine. Prevention strategies, particularly in the perioperative period, are needed to decrease its impact.
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            Epidemiology of acute renal failure: A prospective, multicenter, community-based study

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              Acute renal embolism. Forty-four cases of renal infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation.

              Acute renal embolus is rarely reported in the medical literature; thus, accurate data regarding presentation, laboratory tests, diagnostic techniques, and treatment are lacking. To better define this condition, we examined the medical records of all patients admitted to Kaplan Medical Center and Sheba Medical Center in central Israel from 1984 to 2002 who had a diagnosis of renal infarction and atrial fibrillation. We noted demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters; method of diagnosis; treatment received; and patient outcome. We identified 44 cases of renal embolus: 23 females and 21 males, with an average age of 69.5 +/- 12.6 years. Thirty (68%) patients had abdominal pain, and 6 (14%) had a previous embolic event. Nine patients were being treated with warfarin on admission, 6 (66%) of whom had an international normalized ratio (INR) 400 U/dL. The mean LDH was 1100 +/- 985 U/dL. Diagnostic techniques included renal isotope scan, which was abnormal in 36/37 cases (97%); contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan, which was diagnostic in 12/15 cases (80%); and ultrasound, which was positive in only 3/27 cases (11%). Angiography was positive in 10/10 cases (100%). Twenty-three (61%) of 38 patients had normal renal function on follow-up. The 30-day mortality was 11.4%. Renal embolus was diagnosed mainly in patients aged more than 60 years, some of whom had a previous embolic event. Most of those receiving anticoagulant therapy had a subtherapeutic INR. Abdominal pain was common, as well as hematuria and an elevated LDH. These patients are at risk of subsequent embolic events to other organs. The most sensitive diagnostic technique in this population is a renal isotope scan, but contrast-enhanced CT scan requires further assessment. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRU
                CND
                10.1159/issn.2296-9705
                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9705
                2014
                January – April 2014
                17 April 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 82-87
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and bDepartment of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
                Author notes
                *Niina Koivuviita, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, FI-20521 Turku (Finland), E-Mail niina.koivuviita@tyks.fi
                Article
                362538 PMC4025054 Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2014;4:82-87
                10.1159/000362538
                PMC4025054
                24847350
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Published: April 2014

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Thromboembolism, Angioplasty, Acute kidney injury, Renal artery

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