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      Electrospun Environment Remediation Nanofibers Using Unspinnable Liquids as the Sheath Fluids: A Review


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          Electrospinning, as a promising platform in multidisciplinary engineering over the past two decades, has overcome major challenges and has achieved remarkable breakthroughs in a wide variety of fields such as energy, environmental, and pharmaceutics. However, as a facile and cost-effective approach, its capability of creating nanofibers is still strongly limited by the numbers of treatable fluids. Most recently, more and more efforts have been spent on the treatments of liquids without electrospinnability using multifluid working processes. These unspinnable liquids, although have no electrospinnability themselves, can be converted into nanofibers when they are electrospun with an electrospinnable fluid. Among all sorts of multifluid electrospinning methods, coaxial electrospinning is the most fundamental one. In this review, the principle of modified coaxial electrospinning, in which unspinnable liquids are explored as the sheath working fluids, is introduced. Meanwhile, several typical examples are summarized, in which electrospun nanofibers aimed for the environment remediation were prepared using the modified coaxial electrospinning. Based on the exploration of unspinnable liquids, the present review opens a way for generating complex functional nanostructures from other kinds of multifluid electrospinning methods.

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          One-dimensional composite nanomaterials: synthesis by electrospinning and their applications.

          This Review provides an overview of the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) composite nanomaterials by electrospinning and their applications. After a brief description of the development of the electrospinning technique, the transformation of an inorganic nanocomponent or polymer into another kind of polymer or inorganic matrix is discussed in terms of the electrospinning process, including the direct-dispersed method, gas-solid reaction, in situ photoreduction, sol-gel method, emulsion electrospinning method, solvent evaporation, and coaxial electrospinning. In addition, various applications of such 1D composite nanomaterials are highlighted in terms of electronic and optical nanodevices, chemical and biological sensors, catalysis and electrocatalysis, superhydrophobic surfaces, environment, energy, and biomedical fields. An increasing number of investigations show that electrospinning has been not only a focus of academic study in the laboratory but is also being applied in a great many technological fields.
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            Electrospun nanofiber reinforced composites: a review

            High performance electrospun nanofibers could be used to fabricate nanofiber reinforced composites. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the properties of electrospun nanofibers and their application as reinforcements in composites. The paper first introduces the remarkable properties of electrospun nanofibers including high aspect ratio and molecular orientation, large specific surface area, small pore size, as well as excellent mechanical performance. Next the fabrication methods for the electrospun nanofiber reinforced composites are described. Then different kinds of electrospun nanofiber reinforced composites are discussed in terms of the classifications of electrospun nanofibers. After that, the influences of the mechanical performance of fibers, fiber diameter, fiber amount, fiber/matrix interfacial interaction and the distribution of fibers in the matrix on the reinforcement of composites are discussed. At the end, the possible future challenges and conclusions for electrospun nanofiber reinforced composites are highlighted.
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              Hollow Micro/Nanomaterials with Multilevel Interior Structures


                Author and article information

                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                04 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 12
                : 1
                : 103
                School of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China; 172442574@ 123456st.usst.edu.cn (M.W.); yyyang@ 123456usst.edu.cn (Y.Y.); yananliu@ 123456usst.edu.cn (Y.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: wangk2017@ 123456usst.edu.cn (K.W.); ydg017@ 123456usst.edu.cn (D.-G.Y.)
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 19 November 2019
                : 16 December 2019

                coaxial electrospinning,core-sheath nanofibers,environmental remediation,unspinnable liquid,nanocoating


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