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      The AMH genotype (rs10407022 T>G) is associated with circulating AMH levels in boys, but not in girls


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          Fetal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is responsible for normal male sexual differentiation, and circulating AMH is used as a marker of testicular tissue in newborns with disorders of sex development. Little is known about the mechanism of action in postnatal life. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) reported genetic variation of AMH affecting AMH levels in young men. This study investigated the effect of genetic variation of AMH and AMH type II receptor (AMHR2) ( AMHrs10407022 T>G and AMHR2rs11170547 C>T) on circulating reproductive hormone levels and pubertal onset in boys and girls.

          Design and methods

          This study is a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study in healthy Danish boys and girls from the general population. We included 658 boys aged 5.8–19.8 years and 320 girls aged 5.6–16.5 years. The main outcome measures were genotyping of AMH and AMHR2, pubertal staging and serum levels of reproductive hormones.


          AMHrs10407022T>G was associated with higher serum levels of AMH in prepubertal boys (TT: 575 pmol/L vs TG: 633 pmol/L vs GG: 837 pmol/L, P = 0.002) and adolescents (TT: 44 pmol/L vs TG: 58 pmol/L vs GG: 79 pmol/L, P < 0.001). Adolescent boys carrying the genetic variation also had lower levels of LH (TT: 3.0 IU/L vs TG: 2.8 IU/L vs GG: 1.8 IU/L, P = 0.012). Hormone levels in girls and pubertal onset in either sex did not seem to be profoundly affected by the genotypes.


          Our findings support recent GWAS results in young adults and expand our understanding of genetic variation affecting AMH levels even in boys prior to the pubertal decline of circulating AMH.

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          Most cited references38

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          Growth at Adolescence

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            Anti-Müllerian hormone inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth in the mouse ovary.

            Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility; however, the exact mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Earlier studies using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice suggested that AMH is involved in the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system, in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57Bl/6J mice were cultured for 2 or 4 d in the absence or presence of AMH. Ovaries from 2-d-old mice contain multiple primordial follicles, some naked oocytes, and no follicles at later stages of development. We observed that in the cultured ovaries, either nontreated or AMH-treated, follicular development progressed to the same extent as in in vivo ovaries of comparable age, confirming the validity of our culture system. However, in the presence of AMH, cultured ovaries contained 40% fewer growing follicles compared with control ovaries. A similar reduction was found after 4 d of culture. Consistent with these findings, we noted lower inhibin alpha-subunit expression in AMH-treated ovaries compared with untreated ovaries. In contrast, expression of AMH ligand type II receptor and the expression of oocyte markers growth and differentiation factor 9 and zona pellucida protein 3 were not influenced by AMH. Based on the results, we suggest that AMH inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth and therefore functions as an inhibitory growth factor in the ovary during these early stages of folliculogenesis.
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              Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion

              Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                February 2018
                22 January 2018
                : 7
                : 2
                : 347-354
                [1]Department of Growth and Reproduction EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to I K Greiber: ibengreiber@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 09 December 2017
                : 22 January 2018

                anti-mullerian hormone,anti-mullerian hormone receptor,single-nucleotide polymorphism,puberty


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