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      Two new species of Pirhosigma Giordani Soika (Vespidae, Eumeninae), with an updated catalog for the genus

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Two new species of eumenine wasps were described from Panama and Peru, namely Pirhosigma abregoi Garcete-Barrett & Hermes sp. nov. and P. cambrai Garcete-Barrett & Ferreira sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Eumenes deformata barberoi Bertoni and Eumenes superficialis mondaiensis Bertoni. Pirhosigma mearimense putumayense Giordani Soika stat. nov. is treated as a color variation of the typical P. mearimense (Zavattari). Additions to the key by Ferreira et al. (2017) are made and an updated catalog for species included in the genus is provided.

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          The phylogenetic relationships and natural classificition of the Vespoidea (Hymenptera)

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            Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae).

            The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigated repeatedly by analyzing behavioral and morphological traits as well as nucleotide sequences of few selected genes with largely incongruent results. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships using a phylogenomic approach. We sequenced the transcriptomes of 24 vespid wasp and eight outgroup species and exploited the transcript sequences for design of probes for enriching 913 single-copy protein-coding genes to complement the transcriptome data with nucleotide sequence data from additional 25 ethanol-preserved vespid species. Results from phylogenetic analyses of the combined sequence data revealed the eusocial subfamily Stenogastrinae to be the sister group of all remaining Vespidae, while the subfamily Eumeninae turned out to be paraphyletic. Of the three currently recognized eumenine tribes, Odynerini is paraphyletic with respect to Eumenini, and Zethini is paraphyletic with respect to Polistinae and Vespinae. Our results are in conflict with the current tribal subdivision of Eumeninae and thus, we suggest granting subfamily rank to the two major clades of "Zethini": Raphiglossinae and Zethinae. Overall, our findings corroborate the hypothesis of two independent origins of eusociality in vespid wasps and suggest a single origin of using masticated and salivated plant material for building nests by Raphiglossinae, Zethinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae. The inferred phylogenetic relationships and the open access vespid wasp target DNA enrichment probes will provide a valuable tool for future comparative studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms.
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              A Scalable and Modular Dome Illumination System for Scientific Microphotography on a Budget

              A scalable and modular LED illumination dome for microscopic scientific photography is described and illustrated, and methods for constructing such a dome are detailed. Dome illumination for insect specimens has become standard practice across the field of insect systematics, but many dome designs remain expensive and inflexible with respect to new LED technology. Further, a one-size-fits-all dome cannot accommodate the large breadth of insect size encountered in nature, forcing the photographer to adapt, in some cases, to a less than ideal dome design. The dome described here is scalable, as it is based on a isodecahedron, and the template for the dome is available as a downloaded file from the internet that can be printed on any printer, on the photographer’s choice of media. As a result, a photographer can afford, using this design, to produce a series of domes of various sizes and materials, and LED ring lights of various sizes and color temperatures, depending on the need.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 30 2019
                August 30 2019
                : 71
                : 225-240
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.71.35754
                © 2019

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