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      MEMS Actuators for Optical Microendoscopy

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          Growing demands for affordable, portable, and reliable optical microendoscopic imaging devices are attracting research institutes and industries to find new manufacturing methods. However, the integration of microscopic components into these subsystems is one of today’s challenges in manufacturing and packaging. Together with this kind of miniaturization more and more functional parts have to be accommodated in ever smaller spaces. Therefore, solving this challenge with the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technology has opened the promising opportunities in enabling a wide variety of novel optical microendoscopy to be miniaturized. MEMS fabrication technology enables abilities to apply batch fabrication methods with high-precision and to include a wide variety of optical functionalities to the optical components. As a result, MEMS technology has enabled greater accessibility to advance optical microendoscopy technology to provide high-resolution and high-performance imaging matching with traditional table-top microscopy. In this review the latest advancements of MEMS actuators for optical microendoscopy will be discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references 91

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            Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

            Molecular excitation by the simultaneous absorption of two photons provides intrinsic three-dimensional resolution in laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. The excitation of fluorophores having single-photon absorption in the ultraviolet with a stream of strongly focused subpicosecond pulses of red laser light has made possible fluorescence images of living cells and other microscopic objects. The fluorescence emission increased quadratically with the excitation intensity so that fluorescence and photo-bleaching were confined to the vicinity of the focal plane as expected for cooperative two-photon excitation. This technique also provides unprecedented capabilities for three-dimensional, spatially resolved photochemistry, particularly photolytic release of caged effector molecules.
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              Deep tissue two-photon microscopy.

              With few exceptions biological tissues strongly scatter light, making high-resolution deep imaging impossible for traditional-including confocal-fluorescence microscopy. Nonlinear optical microscopy, in particular two photon-excited fluorescence microscopy, has overcome this limitation, providing large depth penetration mainly because even multiply scattered signal photons can be assigned to their origin as the result of localized nonlinear signal generation. Two-photon microscopy thus allows cellular imaging several hundred microns deep in various organs of living animals. Here we review fundamental concepts of nonlinear microscopy and discuss conditions relevant for achieving large imaging depths in intact tissue.

                Author and article information

                Micromachines (Basel)
                Micromachines (Basel)
                24 January 2019
                February 2019
                : 10
                : 2
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute for Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; qiuzhen@
                [2 ]Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok 10520, Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: piyawatt@ or wibool@ ; Tel.: +66-087-936-5000
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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