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      Mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation

      review-article
      , ,
      Genes & Development
      Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
      LATS, MAP4K, MST, TAZ, TEAD, YAP

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          Abstract

          In this review, Meng et al. focus on recent developments in our understanding of the molecular actions of the core Hippo kinase cascade and discuss key open questions in Hippo pathway regulation and function.

          Abstract

          The Hippo pathway was initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster screens for tissue growth two decades ago and has been a subject extensively studied in both Drosophila and mammals in the last several years. The core of the Hippo pathway consists of a kinase cascade, transcription coactivators, and DNA-binding partners. Recent studies have expanded the Hippo pathway as a complex signaling network with >30 components. This pathway is regulated by intrinsic cell machineries, such as cell–cell contact, cell polarity, and actin cytoskeleton, as well as a wide range of signals, including cellular energy status, mechanical cues, and hormonal signals that act through G-protein-coupled receptors. The major functions of the Hippo pathway have been defined to restrict tissue growth in adults and modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration in developing organs. Furthermore, dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant cell growth and neoplasia. In this review, we focus on recent developments in our understanding of the molecular actions of the core Hippo kinase cascade and discuss key open questions in the regulation and function of the Hippo pathway.

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          Most cited references201

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          Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction.

          Cells perceive their microenvironment not only through soluble signals but also through physical and mechanical cues, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness or confined adhesiveness. By mechanotransduction systems, cells translate these stimuli into biochemical signals controlling multiple aspects of cell behaviour, including growth, differentiation and cancer malignant progression, but how rigidity mechanosensing is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains poorly understood. Here we report the identification of the Yorkie-homologues YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1) as nuclear relays of mechanical signals exerted by ECM rigidity and cell shape. This regulation requires Rho GTPase activity and tension of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, but is independent of the Hippo/LATS cascade. Crucially, YAP/TAZ are functionally required for differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells induced by ECM stiffness and for survival of endothelial cells regulated by cell geometry; conversely, expression of activated YAP overrules physical constraints in dictating cell behaviour. These findings identify YAP/TAZ as sensors and mediators of mechanical cues instructed by the cellular microenvironment.
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            Regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway by G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.

            The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. However, upstream signals that regulate the mammalian Hippo pathway have remained elusive. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway is regulated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Serum-borne lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphophate (S1P) act through G12/13-coupled receptors to inhibit the Hippo pathway kinases Lats1/2, thereby activating YAP and TAZ transcription coactivators, which are oncoproteins repressed by Lats1/2. YAP and TAZ are involved in LPA-induced gene expression, cell migration, and proliferation. In contrast, stimulation of Gs-coupled receptors by glucagon or epinephrine activates Lats1/2 kinase activity, thereby inhibiting YAP function. Thus, GPCR signaling can either activate or inhibit the Hippo-YAP pathway depending on the coupled G protein. Our study identifies extracellular diffusible signals that modulate the Hippo pathway and also establishes the Hippo-YAP pathway as a critical signaling branch downstream of GPCR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Genetic and pharmacological disruption of the TEAD-YAP complex suppresses the oncogenic activity of YAP.

              The Drosophila TEAD ortholog Scalloped is required for Yki-mediated overgrowth but is largely dispensable for normal tissue growth, suggesting that its mammalian counterpart may be exploited for selective inhibition of oncogenic growth driven by YAP hyperactivation. Here we test this hypothesis genetically and pharmacologically. We show that a dominant-negative TEAD molecule does not perturb normal liver growth but potently suppresses hepatomegaly/tumorigenesis resulting from YAP overexpression or Neurofibromin 2 (NF2)/Merlin inactivation. We further identify verteporfin as a small molecule that inhibits TEAD-YAP association and YAP-induced liver overgrowth. These findings provide proof of principle that inhibiting TEAD-YAP interactions is a pharmacologically viable strategy against the YAP oncoprotein.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes Dev
                Genes Dev
                genesdev
                genesdev
                GAD
                Genes & Development
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
                0890-9369
                1549-5477
                1 January 2016
                : 30
                : 1
                : 1-17
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: kuguan@ 123456ucsd.edu
                Article
                8711660
                10.1101/gad.274027.115
                4701972
                26728553
                08090fe7-c297-496e-b757-e4d5aa79da67
                © 2016 Meng et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

                This article is distributed exclusively by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the first six months after the full-issue publication date (see http://genesdev.cshlp.org/site/misc/terms.xhtml). After six months, it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International), as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 17
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002
                Award ID: CA196878
                Award ID: GM51586
                Award ID: EY22611
                Categories
                10
                Review

                lats,map4k,mst,taz,tead,yap
                lats, map4k, mst, taz, tead, yap

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