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      Pso2 (SNM1) is a DNA structure-specific endonuclease

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      1 ,   1 , 2 , *

      Nucleic Acids Research

      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          Many types of DNA structures are generated in response to DNA damage, repair and recombination that require processing via specialized nucleases. DNA hairpins represent one such class of structures formed during V(D)J recombination, palindrome extrusion, DNA transposition and some types of double-strand breaks. Here we present biochemical and genetic evidence to suggest that Pso2 is a robust DNA hairpin opening nuclease in budding yeast. Pso2 (SNM1A in mammals) belongs to a small group of proteins thought to function predominantly during interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. In this study, we characterized the nuclease activity of Pso2 toward a variety of DNA substrates. Unexpectedly, Pso2 was found to be an efficient, structure-specific DNA hairpin opening endonuclease. This activity was further shown to be required in vivo for repair of chromosomal breaks harboring closed hairpin ends. These findings provide the first evidence that Pso2 may function outside ICL repair and open the possibility that Pso2 may function at least in part during ICL repair by processing DNA intermediates including DNA hairpins or hairpin-like structures.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Hairpin opening and overhang processing by an Artemis/DNA-dependent protein kinase complex in nonhomologous end joining and V(D)J recombination.

          Mutations in the Artemis protein in humans result in hypersensitivity to DNA double-strand break-inducing agents and absence of B and T lymphocytes (radiosensitive severe combined immune deficiency [RS-SCID]). Here, we report that Artemis forms a complex with the 469 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in the absence of DNA. The purified Artemis protein alone possesses single-strand-specific 5' to 3' exonuclease activity. Upon complex formation, DNA-PKcs phosphorylates Artemis, and Artemis acquires endonucleolytic activity on 5' and 3' overhangs, as well as hairpins. Finally, the Artemis:DNA-PKcs complex can open hairpins generated by the RAG complex. Thus, DNA-PKcs regulates Artemis by both phosphorylation and complex formation to permit enzymatic activities that are critical for the hairpin-opening step of V(D)J recombination and for the 5' and 3' overhang processing in nonhomologous DNA end joining.
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            The 3' to 5' exonuclease activity of Mre 11 facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

            MRE11 and RAD50 are known to be required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends in vivo. We have investigated the enzymatic activities of the purified proteins and found that Mre11 by itself has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity that is increased when Mre11 is in a complex with Rad50. Mre11 also exhibits endonuclease activity, as shown by the asymmetric opening of DNA hairpin loops. In conjunction with a DNA ligase, Mre11 promotes the joining of noncomplementary ends in vitro by utilizing short homologies near the ends of the DNA fragments. Sequence identities of 1-5 base pairs are present at all of these junctions, and their diversity is consistent with the products of nonhomologous end-joining observed in vivo.
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              Cell cycle and genetic requirements of two pathways of nonhomologous end-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

              In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break can be repaired by at least two pathways of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) that closely resemble events in mammalian cells. In one pathway the chromosome ends are degraded to yield deletions with different sizes whose endpoints have 1 to 6 bp of homology. Alternatively, the 4-bp overhanging 3' ends of HO-cut DNA (5'-AACA-3') are not degraded but can be base paired in misalignment to produce +CA and +ACA insertions. When HO was expressed throughout the cell cycle, the efficiency of NHEJ repair was 30 times higher than when HO was expressed only in G1. The types of repair events were also very different when HO was expressed throughout the cell cycle; 78% of survivors had small insertions, while almost none had large deletions. When HO expression was confined to the G1 phase, only 21% were insertions and 38% had large deletions. These results suggest that there are distinct mechanisms of NHEJ repair producing either insertions or deletions and that these two pathways are differently affected by the time in the cell cycle when HO is expressed. The frequency of NHEJ is unaltered in strains from which RAD1, RAD2, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, or RAD57 is deleted; however, deletions of RAD50, XRS2, or MRE11 reduced NHEJ by more than 70-fold when HO was not cell cycle regulated. Moreover, mutations in these three genes markedly reduced +CA insertions, while significantly increasing the proportion of both small (-ACA) and larger deletion events. In contrast, the rad5O mutation had little effect on the viability of G1-induced cells but significantly reduced the frequency of both +CA insertions and -ACA deletions in favor of larger deletions. Thus, RAD50 (and by extension XRS2 and MRE11) exerts a much more important role in the insertion-producing pathway of NHEJ repair found in S and/or G2 than in the less frequent deletion events that predominate when HO is expressed only in G1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                March 2012
                March 2012
                17 November 2011
                17 November 2011
                : 40
                : 5
                : 2131-2139
                Affiliations
                1Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences and 2M.G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +905 525 9140 (Ext 22912); Fax: +905 522 9033; Email: junopm@ 123456mcmaster.ca
                Article
                gkr1059
                10.1093/nar/gkr1059
                3299998
                22102580
                © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Nucleic Acid Enzymes

                Genetics

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