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      Investigation of pulmonary infection pathogens in neurological intensive care unit

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          The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria in inpatients with pulmonary infection in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU).


          A total of 947 sputum specimens of 428 inpatients from May 2007 to May 2008 in the NICU were enrolled in the study, and bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were analyzed using a VITEK 2 system.


          A total of 400 positive bacterial strains were separated from 947 sputum specimens, with Gram-negative bacteria accounting for 69.0% of the total strains collected. The most common strain of Gram-negative bacteria was Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.5%). Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 10.0% of the total strains, with the most common strain being Staphylococcus aureus (2.5%). Fungal species accounted for 21.0% of the total strains, and the most common strain collected was Candida albicans (12.25%). Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The drug resistance rate of Gram-positive bacteria to penicillin G was 100%, and the Gram-positive bacteria were 100% sensitive to teicoplanin, vancomycin, and linezolid.


          Gram-negative bacterial infections account for the majority of pulmonary infections in the NICU, with fungal infections being the second most common infection type observed. In addition, fungal infections seem to be related to mortality in the NICU.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium.

          Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This organism shows a remarkable capacity to resist antibiotics, either intrinsically (because of constitutive expression of beta-lactamases and efflux pumps, combined with low permeability of the outer-membrane) or following acquisition of resistance genes (e.g., genes for beta-lactamases, or enzymes inactivating aminoglycosides or modifying their target), over-expression of efflux pumps, decreased expression of porins, or mutations in quinolone targets. Worryingly, these mechanisms are often present simultaneously, thereby conferring multiresistant phenotypes. Susceptibility testing is therefore crucial in clinical practice. Empirical treatment usually involves combination therapy, selected on the basis of known local epidemiology (usually a beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone). However, therapy should be simplified as soon as possible, based on susceptibility data and the patient's clinical evolution. Alternative drugs (e.g., colistin) have proven useful against multiresistant strains, but innovative therapeutic options for the future remain scarce, while attempts to develop vaccines have been unsuccessful to date. Among broad-spectrum antibiotics in development, ceftobiprole, sitafloxacin and doripenem show interesting in-vitro activity, although the first two molecules have been evaluated in clinics only against Gram-positive organisms. Doripenem has received a fast track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Pump inhibitors are undergoing phase I trials in cystic fibrosis patients. Therefore, selecting appropriate antibiotics and optimising their use on the basis of pharmacodynamic concepts currently remains the best way of coping with pseudomonal infections.
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            Current control and treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

            Institutional outbreaks caused by Acinetobacter baumannii strains that have acquired multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance constitute a growing public-health problem. Because of complex epidemiology, infection control of these outbreaks is difficult to attain. Identification of potential common sources of an outbreak, through surveillance cultures and epidemiological typing studies, can aid in the implementation of specific control measures. Adherence to a series of infection control methods including strict environmental cleaning, effective sterilisation of reusable medical equipment, attention to proper hand hygiene practices, and use of contact precautions, together with appropriate administrative guidance and support, are required for the containment of an outbreak. Effective antibiotic treatment of A baumannii infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections, is also of paramount importance. Carbapenems have long been regarded as the agents of choice, but resistance rates have risen substantially in some areas. Sulbactam has been successfully used in the treatment of serious A baumannii infections; however, the activity of this agent against carbapenem-resistant isolates is decreasing. Polymyxins show reliable antimicrobial activity against A baumannii isolates. Available clinical reports, although consisting of small-sized studies, support their effectiveness and mitigate previous concerns for toxicity. Minocycline, and particularly its derivative, tigecycline, have shown high antimicrobial activity against A baumannii, though relevant clinical evidence is still scarce. Several issues regarding the optimum therapeutic choices for multidrug-resistant A baumannii infections need to be clarified by future research.
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              Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: resistance mechanisms and implications for therapy.

              Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Both are intrinsically resistant to many drugs and are able to become resistant to virtually any antimicrobial agent. An increasing prevalence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates has been reported in many countries. The resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii include the production of beta-lactamases, efflux pumps, and target-site or outer membrane modifications. Resistance to multiple drugs is usually the result of the combination of different mechanisms in a single isolate or the action of a single potent resistance mechanism. There are many challenges in the treatment of MDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, especially considering the absence of new antimicrobials in the drug-development pipeline. In this review, we present the major resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, and discuss how they can affect antimicrobial therapy, considering recent clinical, microbiological, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings of the main drugs used to treat MDR isolates.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                21 January 2011
                : 7
                : 21-25
                Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing, Medical University, Chongqing, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guangwei Liu, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing, Medical University, 1 You Yi Road, Chongqing 400016, China, Tel +8623 89012878, Fax +8623 68708697, Email cyliuguangwei@ 123456126.com
                © 2011 Quan et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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