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      Simultaneous Quantification of Brigatinib and Brigatinib-Analog in Rat Plasma and Brain Homogenate by LC-MS/MS: Application to Comparative Pharmacokinetic and Brain Distribution Studies

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          Abstract

          Brigatinib and brigatinib-analog are potent and selective ALK inhibitors with the similar structure. A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of brigatinib and brigatinib-analog in rat plasma and brain homogenate was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an ODS column with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water as the mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detections were performed using a TSQ Quantum Ultra mass spectrometric detector with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface, which was operated in the positive ion mode. A simple protein precipitation preparation process was used. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 1.0 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL for analytes in rat plasma and brain homogenate, respectively. The intrabatch and interbatch precision and accuracy of brigatinib and brigatinib-analog were well within the acceptable limits of variation. The simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and brain distribution studies following a single oral administration of brigatinib and brigatinib-analog to rats. The above studies would lay a good foundation for the further applications of brigatinib and brigatinib-analog.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Targeted therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: current standards and the promise of the future.

          In recent years, there has been a major paradigm shift in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC should now be further sub-classified by histology and driver mutation if one is known or present. Translational research advances now allow such mutations to be inhibited by either receptor monoclonal antibodies (mAb) or small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Whilst empirical chemotherapy with a platinum-doublet remains the gold standard for advanced NSCLC without a known driver mutation, targeted therapy is pushing the boundary to significantly improve patient outcomes and quality of life. In this review, we will examine the major subtypes of oncogenic drivers behind NSCLC as well as the development of targeted agents available to treat them both now and in the foreseeable future.
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            The Potent ALK Inhibitor Brigatinib (AP26113) Overcomes Mechanisms of Resistance to First- and Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors in Preclinical Models.

            Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring ALK gene rearrangements (ALK(+)) typically become resistant to the first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib through development of secondary resistance mutations in ALK or disease progression in the brain. Mutations that confer resistance to second-generation ALK TKIs ceritinib and alectinib have also been identified. Here, we report the structure and first comprehensive preclinical evaluation of the next-generation ALK TKI brigatinib.
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              Discovery of Brigatinib (AP26113), a Phosphine Oxide-Containing, Potent, Orally Active Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase.

              In the treatment of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), secondary mutations within the ALK kinase domain have emerged as a major resistance mechanism to both first- and second-generation ALK inhibitors. This report describes the design and synthesis of a series of 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidine-based potent and selective ALK inhibitors culminating in identification of the investigational clinical candidate brigatinib. A unique structural feature of brigatinib is a phosphine oxide, an overlooked but novel hydrogen-bond acceptor that drives potency and selectivity in addition to favorable ADME properties. Brigatinib displayed low nanomolar IC50s against native ALK and all tested clinically relevant ALK mutants in both enzyme-based biochemical and cell-based viability assays and demonstrated efficacy in multiple ALK+ xenografts in mice, including Karpas-299 (anaplastic large-cell lymphomas [ALCL]) and H3122 (NSCLC). Brigatinib represents the most clinically advanced phosphine oxide-containing drug candidate to date and is currently being evaluated in a global phase 2 registration trial.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Anal Chem
                Int J Anal Chem
                IJAC
                International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
                Hindawi
                1687-8760
                1687-8779
                2019
                5 December 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
                2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250200, China
                3Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shandong Drug and Food Vocational College, Weihai 264210, China
                4Shandong Laboratory Animal Center, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250002, China
                5Institute of Materia Medica, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan 250062, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: David Touboul

                Article
                10.1155/2019/9028309
                6915135
                Copyright © 2019 Bo Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Analytical chemistry

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