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      Impaired Release of Bioactive Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction

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          Abstract

          Background: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an endothelial-derived vasoactive peptide. This study investigated whether bioactive PTHrP is locally released in a pressure-dependent way. Methods: A PTHrP antibody directed against the midregional part of PTHrP was used to analyze PTHrP in plasma samples. The biological activity of this PTHrP-like peptide was investigated in vitro. Plasma values were determined in samples from the left pulmonary artery and the arteria femoralis, taken under basal conditions and after the application of oxygen or iloprost to lower the pulmonary pressure. Twenty young patients (mean age 6.5 years), who were catheterized for an analysis of the reactivity of the pulmonary bed, were investigated. Endothelial function was investigated by acetylcholine responsiveness. Results: The antibody recognized a 30-kDa protein with in vitro PTHrP-like activity. In 11 patients (responders) with intact endothelial function, the PTHrP values determined in the left pulmonary artery were higher than those in the arteria femoralis. The local increase in the PTHrP concentration was reduced when either oxygen or iloprost lowered the pressure. Nine patients with endothelial dysfunction did not show any concentration gradients at any time (nonresponders). Conclusions: The local concentration of bioactive PTHrP is increased in patients with pulmonary hypertension and normal endothelial function.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Opposing mitogenic and anti-mitogenic actions of parathyroid hormone-related protein in vascular smooth muscle cells: a critical role for nuclear targeting.

          Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a prohormone that is posttranslationally processed to a family of mature secretory forms, each of which has its own cognate receptor(s) on the cell surface that mediate the actions of PTHrP. In addition to being secreted via the classical secretory pathway and interacting with cell surface receptors in a paracrine/autocrine fashion, PTHrP appears to be able to enter the nucleus directly following translation and influence cellular events in an "intracrine" fashion. In this report, we demonstrate that PTHrP can be targeted to the nucleus in vascular smooth muscle cells, that this nuclear targeting is associated with a striking increase in mitogenesis, that this nuclear effect on proliferation is the diametric opposite of the effects of PTHrP resulting from interaction with cell surface receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells, and that the regions of the PTHrP sequence responsible for this nuclear targeting represent a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal. This report describes the activation of the cell cycle in association with nuclear localization of PTHrP in any cell type. These findings have important implications for the normal physiology of PTHrP in the many tissues which produce it, and suggest that gene delivery of PTHrP or modified variants may be useful in the management of atherosclerotic vascular disease.
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            Possible role of parathyroid hormone-related protein as a proinflammatory cytokine in atherosclerosis.

            Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a vasodilator peptide. In addition, PTHrP appears to affect vascular growth and to be a mediator of inflammation in rheumatic and brain disorders. We examined the possible role of PTHrP in the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis We immunohistochemically analyzed the cellular localization of PTHrP, the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in 26 human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The inflammatory region of plaques was characterized by high PTHrP, PTH1R, and MCP-1 immunostaining in relation to the cap (0.75+/-0.1 versus 0.29+/-0.04, 0.5+/-0.1 versus 0.25+/-0.05, 0.72+/-0.2 versus 0.29+/-0.05, respectively; P<0.05). PTHrP and MCP-1 were colocalized in both resident and inflammatory cells in the plaque. Moreover, in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), PTHrP(1-36) increased MCP-1 mRNA (3-fold at 6 hours) and MCP-1 protein (2.5-fold at 24 hours). This effect was inhibited by either PTHrP(7-34) or various protein kinase A inhibitors and by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor parthenolide. Furthermore, PTHrP(1-36) elicited an increase in NF-kappaB activation in VSMC. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor simvastatin inhibited the PTHrP(1-36) induction of both NF-kappaB activity and MCP-1 overexpression, and this was reversed by mevalonate. PTHrP appears to be a novel proinflammatory mediator in the atheroma lesion and may contribute to the instability of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Our data provide a new rationale to understand the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of statins in atherosclerosis.
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              Parathyroid hormone-related protein and its receptors: nuclear functions and roles in the renal and cardiovascular systems, the placental trophoblasts and the pancreatic islets.

              The cloning of the so-called 'parathyroid hormone-related protein' (PTHrP) in 1987 was the result of a long quest for the factor which, by mimicking the actions of PTH in bone and kidney, is responsible for the hypercalcemic paraneoplastic syndrome, humoral calcemia of malignancy. PTHrP is distinct from PTH in a number of ways. First, PTHrP is the product of a separate gene. Second, with the exception of a short N-terminal region, the structure of PTHrP is not closely related to that of PTH. Third, in contrast to PTH, PTHrP is a paracrine factor expressed throughout the body. Finally, most of the functions of PTHrP have nothing in common with those of PTH. PTHrP is a poly-hormone which comprises a family of distinct peptide hormones arising from post-translational endoproteolytic cleavage of the initial PTHrP translation products. Mature N-terminal, mid-region and C-terminal secretory forms of PTHrP are thus generated, each of them having their own physiologic functions and probably their own receptors. The type 1 PTHrP receptor, binding both PTH(1-34) and PTHrP(1-36), is the only cloned receptor so far. PTHrP is a PTH-like calciotropic hormone, a myorelaxant, a growth factor and a developmental regulatory molecule. The present review reports recent aspects of PTHrP pharmacology and physiology, including: (a) the identification of new peptides and receptors of the PTH/PTHrP system; (b) the recently discovered nuclear functions of PTHrP and the role of PTHrP as an intracrine regulator of cell growth and cell death; (c) the physiological and developmental actions of PTHrP in the cardiovascular and the renal glomerulo-vascular systems; (d) the role of PTHrP as a regulator of pancreatic beta cell growth and functions, and, (e) the interactions of PTHrP and calcium-sensing receptors for the control of the growth of placental trophoblasts. These new advances have contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of PTHrP, and will help to identify its therapeutic potential in a number of diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                January 2007
                21 December 2006
                : 44
                : 1
                : 67-74
                Affiliations
                aInstitut für Physiologie and bKinderherzzentrum, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
                Article
                98154 J Vasc Res 2007;44:67–74
                10.1159/000098154
                17191022
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 19, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Paper

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